Volume 12, No. 1, 2023
|Assessing the Prospects and Challenges of Organic Agriculture in the Pothwar Region of Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Zeeshan Saeed, Hamza Hayat, Faraz Shafiq and Waqar-ul-Hassan Tareen
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 1-7.
AbstractFull text pdf
Organic farming is vital in rural development and food production by promoting sustainable agriculture. The research study aimed to investigate the prospects and challenges of organic agriculture in Pothwar. For the research study, districts Chakwal, Rawalpindi and Islamabad were selected. 60 farmers from Chakwal, 60 from Rawalpindi, and 30 from Islamabad were chosen randomly for research for a sample size of 150 respondents. The interview schedule was prepared based on the literature review, and study objectives and interviews with the respondents were conducted in the native language. The majority, 64% of respondents, were owners of the land. The majority, 73.3% of respondents, use animals for land reclamation. 62% of respondents did not adopt a conservation tillage method. 74% of respondents implement crop diversification. 79% of respondents use the reforestation method. 81% of respondents have no knowledge or adoption of organic food safety. 94% respondents know cover crop manuring. The majority, 83% of respondents, know about organic farming, which is chemical and pathogen free. 82% of respondents know organic products with a high level of nutrients. The majority, 90% of respondents, know about organic farming increasing soil health. 58% of respondents have not adopted the organic certification guidelines. 51% of respondents have not adopted organic farming protection of soil. The majority 78% of respondents have not use bio fertilizer, a major component of organic farming. The majority, 77% of respondents, have adopted organic agriculture to increase soil health. Organic farming is not a better option for the Pothwar region of Punjab, according to 44.7% of respondents. 47% respondent agree that organic agriculture promotes biodiversity. 54% of respondents claimed that organic farming requires low input. 38% of respondents said that organic farming does not use machines. 34% of respondents strongly agree with a lack of input in organic farming. 41% of respondents agree less information about organic farming. 37% of respondents disagree that the production of organic farming is costly. Most organic farmers are aware of the requirements for organic certification, organic markets, the use of manure as fertilizer, the safety and quality of organic food, and the restricted variety of organic farming, but the admission rate of responders is meager. The benefits of organic agriculture include promoting biodiversity, increasing export possibilities, and lowering human health risks. High consumer demand for organic products, the need for few inputs in organic farming, and the aim of chemical-free agriculture are some supporting factors.
Keywords: Prospect, Challenges, Organic Agriculture, Pothware Punjab Pakistan.
|Farmers’ Awareness of Improved Maize Cropping Practices in Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Muddassir and Bader Alhafi Alotaibi
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 8-17.
AbstractFull text pdf
Study was aimed to assess awareness of improved maize cropping practices among maize farmers. The data was collected by using simple random sampling and 120 maize farmers were involved in the study. A structured interview was used for Personal interview. The study revealed that 84.2% of the farmers were aware of improved maize cropping practices. The farmers who had been to college and higher education, large scale farmers and farmers who were visiting extension department were aware of improved maize practices. The significant difference was found regarding overall awareness among farmer’s groups including farmers who had been to college and higher education and who had been to high school or less than high school, farmers who were visiting extension department and who were not visiting extension department, small- and large-scale farmers (0.00, P> .001). Practice-wise only seed treatment, weedicide and harvesting methods did not show significant differences. The college and higher education, large scale farmers and visit to extension department were the determinants of awareness among farmers. The government should implement extension trainings and awareness programs to create awareness among small scale farmers and farmers and who had high school education or less than high school and farmers who were not visiting extension department.
Keywords: Awareness 2, Agricultural extension 3, Cropping practices maize 4, Pakistan.
|Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Characteristics of Okra (Abelmoschus esculents (L.) Moench) Accessions Grown in Pawe District, Northwestern Ethiopia
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 18-21.
AbstractFull text pdf
Okra is one of the nutritious and multipurpose vegetables widely consumed in different parts of the world. The nutritional and other chemical profiles of accessions of the crop grown in the Pawe area, however, are not properly known. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional content of thirteen indigenous okra accessions grown at Pawe District in Benishangul Gumuz regional state, Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that the nutritional composition has a significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference among okra pod accessions. The moisture, ash, protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and carbohydrate contents were raged from 89.07 – 91.46, 7.16 – 8.25, 18.2 – 22.06, 0.88 – 1.43, 1.66 – 5.98, and 52.71 – 60.67 % respectively. While the content of oxalate, phytate, and tannin ranged from 0.56 – 0.73, 0.30 – 0.34, and 6.4 – 6.7 mg/100g, respectively, only oxalate content has significant (P ≤0.05) difference among accessions. Results indicate that okra pods are rich in nutrients and can contribute a vital role to human health. Further research is recommended on processing methods that influence the nutritional quality of okra pods.
Keywords: Antinutrition, Okra, Proximate Composition, Indigenous Vegetable.
|Assessment of Agronomic Traits of Plantain Cultivars and Hybrids Cultivated at High-Density Planting
N’guetta Adélaïde, Atsin Guy Joël Olivier, Aby N’goran, Traoré Siaka, Kouadio Demby Laetitia Muriel and Koffi Kouamé Germain Cyrille
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 22-26.
AbstractFull text pdf
Plantain is one of the staple foods and source of income for the Ivorian populations. However, the cultivated varieties have low yields. Genotypes having diverse genetic background can improve the yield. This study was conducted in Anguédédou, in southern Côte d’Ivoire, to assess the agronomic performance of local cultivars and hybrids cultivated at high-density planting. Banana were planted in a randomized complete block design at a density of 2500 plants ha-1 (2 m x 2 m). Six banana genotypes were tested during a production cycle. The results showed that hybrid SH 3640 had the shortest plant height (2.56 m) and harvest period of (11 months), the highest bunch mass (17 kg) and yield (16 t ha- 1). The harvest period was longer with local varieties 3 Vert, Saci and Big Ebanga (around 15 months). The number of hands and fruit was higher in the hybrids. They had more than 8 hands and 90 and 73 fruits respectively for SH 3640 and BITA. Cultivar Big Ebanga produced the thickest (13 cm) and the longest (26 cm) fruit, while SH 3640 had the shortest fruit (18 cm). Hybrids and cultivars Saci, Big Ebanga and 3 Vert had the best yields and can be recommended to increase banana tree yield per hectare.
Keywords: Growth, Yield, Agronomic Performance, Plantain, Hybrid, Côte d’Ivoire.
|Potential of Biogas and Organic Fertilizers Production through Anaerobic Digestion of Slaughterhouse Waste in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Soma Dohan Mariam, Pouya Bouinzemwendé Mathias, Zongo Nongma Armel, Kiba Delwendé Innocent, Gnankambary Zacharia and Sedogo Papoba Michel
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 27-30.
AbstractFull text pdf
The management of urban waste such as those from slaughterhouses is a major concern in developing countries. However, these wastes can be recycled as a source of energy and organic fertilizers for agricultural production. This study aimed to assess the possibility of producing biogas through anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastes either digested sole or mixed with phosphate rock, and to characterize the chemical composition of the digestates obtained for agricultural production. Our results showed that the production of waste in the slaughterhouse of Ouagadougou, the main city of Burkina Faso is about 2.500 tonnes per year or about 200 tonnes per month. For slaughterhouse waste digested sole, the biogas production from the anaerobic digestion was in two months 139418 litres per ton of dry matter corresponding to a daily production of 2.2 litres per kg of dry matter. For slaughterhouse waste digested with phosphate rock, the biogas production was 120850 litres per ton of dry matter corresponding to a daily production of 1.9 litres per kg of dry matter. The digestates resulting from this digestion contained more than 50% of organic matter, 13 g/kg of nitrogen. Their pH was neutral (pH=7.18 for slaughterhouse waste digested sole, 7.47 for slaughterhouse waste digested with phosphate rock) compared to untreated waste which are acidic (pH 5.98). The carbon / nitrogen ratio of digestates was higher than 20. The adjunction of phosphate rock did not improve biogas production and the water soluble P content of the digestates. These results suggest that the anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste could contribute to energy and organic fertilizers needs of populations while cleaning up the environment. However, there is a need to increase the duration of anaerobic digestion or to consider additional aerobic composting to further decrease the C/N ratio of digestates.
Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, Slaughterhouse Wastes, Phosphate Rock, Biogas, Organic Fertilizers, Ouagadougou.
|Cloning and Characterization of Trichoderma Glucanase Gene for Plant Transformation
Mawra Nadeem, Amar Ahmed Khan, Jawad Nadeem, Awais Ahmed Khan and Urooj Fatima
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 31-46.
AbstractFull text pdf
Trichoderma harzianum is a potential biocontrol agent. A number of mechanisms showing their mycoparasitic ability have been explored i.e., antibiotic production, production of hydrolytic enzymes, parasitism, competition for nutrients, defense mechanism stimulations, and combination of all these. Considering the importance of Trichoderma harzianum derived glucanases in mycoparasitism, the present research work was planned to identify, isolate and characterize pathogenesis-related β-1, 6-glucanases gene from local strain of mycoparasite for plant transformation. Trichoderma harzianum genomic DNA was isolated by using modified CTAB method. Particular restriction sites were engineered at the far ends of β-1, 6-glucanase gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction. The amplified glucanase gene with engineered sites was cloned into pTZ57R/T cloning vector. Cloned fragment was sequenced and the resultant sequence was analyzed by using various bioinformatics tools i.e., Blast, Restriction mapper. It was found to have more than 97% homology with glucanase sequences reported in literature. Then regulatory sequences were cloned at the far ends of characterized glucanase gene for the development of plant transformation vector.
Keywords: Glucanase Gene, Plant Protection, Bioinformatics.
|Metabolomics, a Potential Way to Improve Abiotic Stresses Tolerance in Cereal Crops
Muhammad Usama Noman and Salman Azhar
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 47-55.
AbstractFull text pdf
Rapid Climate change is causing the highly diversified effect on both quantity and quality in extensive area crops. All abiotic stresses are based on ecological conditions due to any small change that can create a future challenge for us. Metabolomics is a very valuable approach and powerful tool that helps to understand plant reaction stimuli. A range of variable analytical approaches (GC-Ms, LC-Ms, CE-Ms, NMR) has been utilized to inspect the action of the metabolites. It promotes recognizing and understand the markers of bio-stimulants action. Plants have developed complex systems to recognize external signals to adjust according to fluctuating environmental factors for their survival in stressful environments. Plants respond to abiotic stresses by producing various metabolites and by expression of certain stress related genes. Comprehensive data recognition and identification of complicated metabolites is a challenge however appropriate software tools application promotes the accuracy with big data-driven precision. The review articulates hurriedly the basic aspects relating to identifying the pathways through valuable tools in metabolomics.
Keywords: Biotic Stress, Abiotic Stress, Metabolomic Assisted Breeding, Metabolic Pathways, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Metabolites, Reactive Oxygen Species.
|Utilisation of Herbal Bullets against Newcastle Disease in Poultry Sector of Asia and Africa (2012-2022)
Tayyaba Akhtar, Sana Shahid, Abeeha Asghar, Ifham Naeem, Shamreza Aziz and Tayyaba Ameer
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 56-65.
AbstractFull text pdf
Poultry industry is rapidly booming in developing countries with increased demand for consumption. Reportedly, chicken meat is highly expected to be used as a major source of protein. With rising popularity and expansion comes greater risk to health and economic losses due to lethal diseases like New Castle disease. Such diseases not only make flocks vulnerable to morbidity but also increases mortality risks for the whole flock. Thus, controlling, managing, and treating these diseases is direly needed. Developing countries, for example, Asian and African countries, rely on a number of control methods and treatments. One of these is the use of ethnoveterinary medicine. Many researchers have also tested the efficacy of these medicines in various terms. In Pakistan, Azadirachta indica, Nigella sativa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Iresine herbstii, etc. have been found effective against Newcastle Disease. Phyllanthus embolic, Curcuma long and Ocimum tenuiflorum, Allium cepa, Cuminum cyminum, Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Laurus nobilis are also found effective against ND in India. China is the largest poultry industry in the world that has also been employing various ethnoveterinary medicines for disease control in farms. Some of the most used ethnoveterinary medicines include Astragalus membranaceus, Angelicae sinensis extract and Danggui Buxue San, Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese plant, ginseng (Chinese plant) stem-leaf saponins, Rheum rhabarbarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Sijunzi Decoction, Dangguibuxue Tang and Morus alba with vaccine adjuant. In African countries, Ethnoveterinary botanical medicines are also used. The use of Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum with NDV lasota vaccine, Aloe barbadensis miller, Moringa oleifera, Lagenaria breviflora, Cucumis metuliferus, Piper guineense, Aframomum melegueta, and Psidium guajava are known to be effective. Survey-based studies in Ethiopia have shown that Acmella caulirhiza, Zingibar officinale, Mixture of Alcohol, Citrus limon and Allium cepa, Capsicum annum, Rumex abyssinicus root and Brasica compestris are used as ethnoveterinary Similarly, In Zimbabwe, Capsicum annum, Sesamum angustifolium fruit, Tridactyle bicaudata leaves, Strychnos cocculoides, Senna singueana leaves, Abyssinia bark, Aloe greatheadii pods, and other aloe species are used effectively against NDV. This literature review will highlight some herbs and ethnoveterinary medicines that have been researched to be effective against Newcastle Disease.
Keywords: Ethnoveterinary Medicine, Botanicals, Asian Herbs, African herbs, Newcastle Disease
|Assessment of Cassava Peel/Palm Kernel Cake Meal (PKM) on Growth Performance and Blood Parameters of Lactating Sows (Agricultural Extension Implication)
Moseri H, Umeri C, Onyemekonwu RC and Belonwu EN
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(1): 66-70.
AbstractFull text pdf
A four weeks study was carried out to assess the effect of cassava peel/palm kernel cake meal on the growth characteristics of lactating sows, piglets and blood parameters. Forty large white lactating sows with average weight (72-78kg) and piglets mean weight range from 27 to 35kg were randomly distributed to the five treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD). The combination was attained on one to one weight basis. The combinations replaced maize at 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40%. Feed/water were made readily available. The results on performance characteristics, hematological parameters and serum biochemical parameters fed difference inclusion of cassava peel/PKC meal were significantly (P<0.05) influenced. Performance of lactating sows recorded a higher weight loss 30% (18.13kg) and piglet mortality 40% (14.81%), while piglet average weekly weight gained (7.5kg) and weaned (30) was better in 10%. However, this study recommended 10% level of cassava peel/pkc meal in lactating sow feed.
Keywords: Growth Performance, Lactating Sow, Piglets, Cassava Peel/Palm Kernel Cake, Blood Parameters