Volume 7, No. 3, 2018
|Comparative Analyses of Metal Pollutants Trans-Bioaccumulations in Sarotheredon melanotheron and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Porto-Novo Lagoon Ecosystem
Babalola O Adeniyi and Fiogbe D Emile
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 122-128.
AbstractFull text pdf
Comparative analyses of metal pollutants trans-bioaccumulation in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Sarotheredon melanotheron organs and tissues from Porto-Novo Lagoon was carried out during rainy and dry seasons. Metal pollutants such as Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Va, and MH3Hg were found in measureable amounts in the tissues and organs of the test animals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer equipment. The mean range of all metal pollutants found in the tissues and organs between July 2014 and June 2015 are given. C. nigrodigitatus: Gill (29.23-230.67mg/kg), Liver (46.25-318.22 mg/kg), Bone (75.65-247.20mg/kg), Gut (19.98-208.09mg/kg) and Muscle (186.72-245.25mg/kg) and for S. melanotheron: Gill (158.10-357.70 mg/kg), Liver (270.67-1931.73 mg/kg), Bone (27.61-130.40 mg/kg), Gut (272.61-1247.05 mg/kg) and Muscle (104.50-6133.46 mg/kg). There is significant difference at 5% level in the means of metal pollutants in tissues and organs of S. melanotheron and C. nigrodigitatus during the study periods. Laboratory and statistical analyses conducted on metal pollutants bioaccumulations in the organs and tissues of the test animals shows that Sarotheredon melanotheron had the highest means values of metal pollutants bioaccumulation than Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus due to its filter feeding ability and the bio accumulation of these metal pollutants in the test animals are above regulatory permissible limits. It is therefore recommended that S. melanotheron and C. nigrodigitatus from Porto-Novo Lagoon are not safe for human consumption.
Keywords: Trans-bioaccumulation, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Sarotheredon melanotheron, Metal Pollutants, Porto-Novo lagoon
|Qualitative, Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Acute Toxicity Study of Hydromethanolic Leaf Extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Wistar Strain Albino Rats
Zanna Modu, Shettima Abba Yagana, Daja Aliyu, Saleh Hamza and Sodipo Oluwole Adebayo
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 129-134.
AbstractFull text pdf
The plant Carica papaya Linn. is a member of the family Caricaceae with four general. It is a large perennial herb with a rapid growth rate. It is called “pawpaw” in English, “papita” in Hindi and “Gwanda” in Hausa. Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) is an important medicinal plant. The study investigated the photochemistry and acute toxicity study of hydromethanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in wistar strain albino rats. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts revealed the probable presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, anthraquinones and terpenoids. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the plant showed the concentration of alkaloids as 0.45 w/w, flavonoids 0.21 w/w, saponins 0.04 w/w and tannins 0.04 w/w. The acute toxicity (LD50) of the hydromethanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. was relatively safe at doses of up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. The acclaimed anti-diarrhoeal activity and other medicinal properties of Carica papaya Linn could be due to the presence of the phytochemical constituents and particularly alkaloids and flavonoids.
Keywords: Carica papaya Linn; Phytochemicals, Acute Toxicity Study and Albino Rats
|Evaluation of Bee Propolis and Some Plant Products in the Management of Larger Grain Borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Stored Maize
Osipitan AA, Babayemi IS, George-Onaho JA and Ete JA
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 135-138.
AbstractFull text pdf
The larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus is one of the major insect pests of maize in storage. One of the age long methods of controlling this pest is the use of synthetic insecticides. However, synthetic insecticides are costly and are not environmentally safe due to the persistence of some of their components in the environment. The use of insecticides of plant origin is an alternative to synthetic insecticides as they easily biodegraded and available within the reach of farmers. This study therefore evaluated the efficacy of leaf powders of Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia, Theobroma cacao, Azadirachta indica, Citrus sinensis and bee propolis powder at managing the population of the Larger Grain Borer (LGB), Prostephanus truncatus on maize grains in storage. One hundred grams of clean uninfested maize, variety Swan-1 were weighed into 250cm3 jars using Metler weighing balance. The grains were mixed with 5gm powders of bee propolis and plant materials (w/w). The treated grains were separately infested with 10 pairs of 1-2 days old adult P. truncatus. The treatments were replicated three times and arranged on work table in the laboratory using a Completely Randomized Design. The results showed that the untreated grains (control) had a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of adult LGB than the remaining treatments. The lowest number of LGB was recorded in grains treated with cocoa leaf powder. C. odorata leaf powder caused the highest adult mortality of LGB which was significantly (P<0.05) higher than mortalities in other treatments. The highest grain weight loss, grain damage and weight of dust were recorded in the control while grains treated with neem leaf powder had the lowest grain weight loss. Leaf powders from plants and propolis could be used in conjunction with other control methods to control LGB without necessarily polluting the environment.
Keywords: Propolis, Leaf powder, Larger grain borer, Grain damage
|Woolly Apple Aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann, Management Using Non-Synthetic Insecticides on Apple Orchard Central Highlands of ETHIOPIA
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 139-147.
AbstractFull text pdf
Growing temperate fruits in the highlands of Ethiopia will help to balance the diet of farmers. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of naturally occurring products in controlling the wooly apple aphid in apple orchard at Holeta, Ethiopia. Woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum, is an important insect pest of apples in Holetta agricultural research center apple orchards and in other apple-growing areas of the country. Aqueous extracts of different botanicals, bio-pesticides, entomopathogens and insecticides were screened against WAA. Namely Berbera Seed (Miletia ferugenus), Pyrethrum flower (Chrysanthemum cineraraefolium), Metarizum anosipele fungi, Bacillus thuringiensis var thuringiensis(Bt), Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb extracted, Glucosinolate Botanical, Silvercolodial solution, Dimethoate 40 EC, Pirimor 50 DG and Neembicide was used. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three Replications. The highest and lowest WAA colony and aphid per colony were recorded from the untreated plots and standard insecticide (Pirimor 50 DG), respectively. WAA colony and aphid per colony in botanicals, bio-pesticides, and entomo-pathogenic treatments were intermediary between the standard and the untreated check. Berbera Seed (Miletia ferugenus) resulted in lower WAA colony and good efficacy (55.91 %) than the rest of botanical treatments. Entomo-pathogenic fungi and Bt that are indispensable natural biological control agents of many insects both at field and storage condition. This studies lead to the conclusion that wooly apple aphid problem in apple orchard (not at nursery) conditions entomopathogens and plant based extracted pesticides can be a safer and effective alternative for WAA management which is simple to prepare and apply. Spraying apple tree by Neembicide or Berbera seed extracted solution slows the infestation and also environmentally friend and not harmful to beneficial insects; alternative pollinators. Generally, these synthetic insecticides have tremendous impact on Natural enemies and beneficial insects as well as on environmental side effect.
Keywords: WAA, colony, bio-pesticides, Eriosoma lanigerum, orchards, Aqueous, Pyrethrum flower, Metarizum anosipele fungi, Garlic bulb, Dimethoate 40 EC, Pirimor 50 DG, Bt.
|Evaluating Urea-Treated-Maize-Stover And Grass-Hay Efficiency Fed Rift-Valley Sheep Alone with Supplementation
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 148-155.
AbstractFull text pdf
A study was conducted on twenty Rift-valley sheep (RVS) of 15.1 2.1kg initial body weight to evaluate comparative dietary effect and partial-budget-analyses of urea treated maize stover (UTMS) and grass-hay (GH) basal diets alone or with concentrate mix (CM= 67% wheat-bran: 33% noun-seed cake) on Performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments were GH+300gm CM, GH alone, UTMS+300g CM and UTMS alone as T1, T2, T3 & T4, respectively. Digestibility-trial and carcass evaluation carried-out at the end of feeding-trial. Urea-treatment improved CP by 47% from 4.8-9.11%. Supplementation improved TDMI (908, 607, 883 & 571-gm/day (SEM=11.0)) and CP (132,60,124 &51gm/day (SEM=2.4) for T1, T2, T3 & T4, respectively. Apparent DCP was in order of T3>T1>T4>T2 (74,73,48&45%). ADG was 98,8,103 & 8gm/day (SEM=6.1) and hot carcass weight (HCW) was 12.3,7.0,12.7 & 7.6 kg (SEM=0.68) for T1,T2,T3,&T4, respectively. Both ADG and HCW followed similar-trend like DMI and were greater(P<0.001) for the supplemented treatments. Net return was greater-for groups supplemented. Marginal-rate of return for treatments supplemented were comparable. Generally, in all performance and partial-budget analyses-parameters, results were similar between the two supplemented groups & non-supplemented-treatments. This suggested that UTMS can equally replace grass hay whether fed alone or with a supplement.
Keywords: Urea-Treated Maize-Stover, Grass-Hay, Intake, Digestibility, Performance, Growing Sheep
|Carbon Stock and Soil Properties Analysis along Altitudinal Gradient and Slope in Gra Kahsu National Forest Priority Area: Southern Tigray, Ethiopia
Tesfay Atsbha, Anteneh Belayneh and Tessema Zewdu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 156-163.
AbstractFull text pdf
The study was conducted to assess the impacts of altitude and slope on carbon stock and soil properties on the slopes of Gra-kahsu national forest priority area. Data were collected from 35 quadrats, each with 20 m X 20 m with trees of diameter at breast or stump height >2.5 cm. Above and below ground carbon (allometric equation), organic carbon (Walkely-Black), PH (1:25water), and total nitrogen (Kjedah) were the mothed used for analyzed. Analysis of one way using R-software was used to analysis the mean of carbon stock pools and soil properties across the altitudinal gradients and slopes. The upper altitudinal class of the study area had better carbon stock than the rest classes due to the presence of high diameter at breast height. The distribution of carbon stocks with each sample quadrate in litter, herb, above ground and below ground carbon pools was found positively correlated and had significant differences with altitude. However, positively correlated and had non-significant differences in litter, dead woody carbon and soil organic carbon pools with slope was found. Except organic carbon percentage, soil organic matter and total nitrogen, all considered soil properties showed non-significant differences among the three-altitudinal class. The differences may be attributed to leaching and differences in organic matter (carbon) contents within the soil profiles due to altitude. The current study shows that carbon stock value, soil properties of study area was highly affected by environmental factors such as altitude, and slope. Nevertheless, altitude was the only factor that showed significance difference in carbon stocks of the study area.
Keywords: Altitude, Carbon stock, Slope gradient; Soil organic carbon
|Genetic Variability Analysis of Some Coffee Germplasms (Coffea arabica L.) Based on Organoleptic Quality Traits in Ethiopia
Abdulfeta Tariku and Ashenafi Ayano
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 164-167.
AbstractFull text pdf
Ethiopia is the homeland and center of genetic diversity of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L). Cup quality determines the relative price as well as the usefulness of a given quantity of coffee. Eighty eight accessions of Coffea arabica L and five standard checks were tested at Tepi National Spice Research Center during the 2016 growing season. The aim of the study was to find out heritability, variance components, variability and genetic advance based on 8 cup quality traits. Analysis of variance showed that very high significant (P<0.01) variation among genotypes for flavor and overall quality, and also significance (P<0.05) for aromatic quality. Very high Genetic advance as percent of the mean and high GCV, PCV were revealed for bitterness and astringency, indicating improvement of these traits through selection is impossible as they had low heritability and hence, heterosis breeding would be recommended to improve such traits. The lower values for GCV than PCV indicated the importance of environment in the expression of these traits.
Keywords: Coffea arabica, Cup quality, Heritability, genetic advance, GVC, PCV
|Least Cost Cooling and Storage Technologies of Horticultural Crops: A Review
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 168-174.
AbstractFull text pdf
Least cost pre-cooling and storage technologies are an intricate and essential part of the proper temperature management of perishable crops for long lasting and maintain quality at a high level. These technologies include Hydro-cooling, vacuum cooling, room cooling, icing and forced air cooling. In accordance, different post-harvest pre-cooling and storage treatments were applied for different fruit and vegetables. Tomato subjected to air cooling for 24 hours, hydro cooling with raw water for 45 min, hydro cooling with ice water for 30 min and hydro cooling with ice water and CaCl2 for 30 min. Accordingly, the minimum weight loss was observed from Hydro-cooling with ice water samples of 11% followed by Hydro-cooling with ice water + Cacl2 samples with 12% weight loss during the 13 days of storage. Hydro-cooling with ice water samples gave best results for density with a 4.5% decrease followed by Hydro-cooling with ice water + Cacl2 samples with a 15% decrease during the 13 days of storage. Hydro-cooling with ice water + Cacl2 samples recorded an increase of 32 % followed by Hydro-cooling with ice water samples with 41% increase in the value of ascorbic acid during the 13 days of storage. Hydro-cooling with ice water + Cacl2 gave the best storage characteristics of tomatoes resulting increase in shelf life up to 13 days. Despite of these least cost cooling and storage technologies are applicable even for small scale farmers to extend the shelve life and maintain the inherent quality of Horticultural crops, farmers have no awareness of these technologies, thus it is important to focus on construction of this technologies, demonstration of how it function in comparison with the conservative methods of storing and cooling of perishable crops.
Keywords: Pre-cooling, Hydro-cooling, Vacuum cooling, Room cooling, Forced air cooling
|Status of Ethiopian Rangelands: with Special Reference to Southern Rangelands
Alemayehu Mengistu, Gezahagn Kebede and Fekede Feyissa
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 175-181.
AbstractFull text pdf
In the southern rangelands of Ethiopia, most of the feed that livestock utilize predominantly originates from natural pasture, which comprised natural grasses, browse and bushes. Utilization of crop residues from cultivable land is negligible. However, livestock in the rangeland areas experience large seasonal fluctuations in feed quantity and quality during the dry seasons. Drought, shortage of rain, overgrazing and bush encroachment including insufficient grass growth and overpopulation are the major factors contributing to feed shortage in that order. Conservation in the form of standing hay is the most popular followed by some hay making and standing hay plus crop residues while the least forms of feed conservation is crop residues. The productivity of forages changes from time to time depending upon the rainfall, soil, grazing intensities and other associated factors. As a result, the potential carrying capacity changes over time. The Borana have the view that the condition of the range is declining as a result of both increased livestock and environmental degradation. Borana household members and elders bitterly reported the increasing populations of acacia species as well as other less palatable, unpalatable and poisonous plant species in the rangelands. Woody vegetation reduces grass cover through increasing the competition for available water and nutrients and reducing the light reaching the grass layer. However, some bushes and trees provide leaves and pods for tree browses in the dry season. These are good feed for camels and goats, somewhat for sheep and cattle to a lesser extent. The recent increasing trend for households to keep a relatively high number of goats, sheep and camels indicates the response of the Borana to increased bush encroachment. The Borana households and elders indicated that the over utilization and depletion of their range environment has resulted in several negative outcomes. These include shortage of feed and water, livestock diseases, low animal productivity and livestock losses which in turn had resulted in unusual migration, starvation, poverty and human suffering. Therefore, interventions in the southern rangelands are needed to promote sustainability of the traditional social order as well as ecological sustainability of livestock production.
Keywords: Borana, Grazing Management, Rangelands Conditions, Southern Ethiopia
|Demonstrating Improved Vegetable Crops with Production Materials by Using Participatory Approach to Women Farmers at Welmera District, Ethiopia
Mamaru Tesfaye and Liyusew Ayalew
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(3): 182-185.
AbstractFull text pdf
This activity was conducted from 2015-2017 during off season with the objective of demonstrating improved vegetable crops with production small scale drip irrigation by using participatory approach to women farmers which was conducted in Robi Gebeya Welemera District in Finfine surrounding special zone of oromiya regional state in Ethiopia .women farmers have been selected From the identified frame of the sample, a mixture of 15 farmers (by gender & social status) per Peasant Association and farmers selection approach were made joint venture team composed of the researcher from agricultural extension, water resource and vegetable case team, district SMS and locally decentralized institution (Peasant Associations’ chairperson) ,as Method of Technology Implementation at Field Level Material resources supplied were Rope and washer small scale water pump, Improved seeds of onion, carrot, Cauli flower, cabbage and tomato vegetable seedling supplied for each farmer on 20 cm x 20 cm plot of land where allotted for demonstration of the technology with system drip irrigation at each farmers field at the due time of working and The demonstration hosted women farmers has adequately trained during the course of the growing seasons to play a critical role in the use of the vegetable in the HHs and the Demonstration as promotional tool. data were collected through Group and individual discussions, Joint field and home visits, Semi-structured interviews, Continuous interaction (monitoring and evaluation) and Data were analyzed qualitatively from field notes and semi-structured interview guide, organized and summarized after being incorporated into the computer. As a finding from the total demonstrated vegetables tomato beats by all evaluation parameters followed by hot pepper and cabbage while the other are less preferred. Therefore, these three Vegetable crops are highly demanded and demand also already created in the area and its recommended to be scaled up/out in the demonstration sites and similar agro ecologies of the stud districts/zones.
Keywords: Demonstration, Improved technology, Vegetable, Irrigation. Rope Washer