Volume 8, No. 4, 2019
|Effect of Garlic Extract on Immunological Response of Broiler and FUNAAB -ALPHA breed of chicken in Comparison to Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Lasota)
Bulus E and Zaro HJ
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 170-173.
AbstractFull text pdf
This study was conducted to determine the effect of varied levels of garlic extract in comparisons to Newcastle disease vaccine (Lasota) on immune response of broilers and FUNAAB local breeds of chicken. Total numbers of 210 chickens were used for the study, of which 105 were broilers and 105 FUNAAB chickens. The birds were administered five treatments at random in their drinking water as they were grouped according to the treatments. These were 0% garlic extract (GE), Newcastle disease vaccine (NDV), 5% garlic extract + NDV, 5% GE and 10% GE for treatment 1,2,3,4, and 5, respectively. The chickens were bled through their wing vain and sera were obtained through decantation. This was done at pre-vaccination and post vaccination. Heamagglutination Inhibition (HI) test was conducted in virology laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom. The weight of birds were also measured weekly. The result shows that garlic significantly (p<0.05) influenced Heamagglutination inhibition titre values in both broilers and FUNAAB-ALPHA breeds of chickens. This revealed that for broilers the group that were administered 5% garlic extract (GE) + Newcastle disease vaccines (NDV) combined had the highest immune response (31.75 titre). Light and medium body weight categories were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by the treatments. While the heavy chickens were not significantly (p>0.05) affected. Antibody titre were not significant (p>0.05) at pre-vaccination and 28 days post-vaccination, but significant (p<0.05) at day 14 and 42 post vaccination. The body weight of birds were significantly (p<0.05) influenced at week 3 and 9 post inoculation. It can be concluded that administration of 5% (GE) + NDV combined will enhance immune potentials of chickens as well as weight gain.
Keywords: FUNAAB chickens, garlic extract, Newcastle disease vaccine
|Carcass Characteristics and Organ Proportions of Rabbits Fed Diets Containing RHIZO (Rhizophora mangle) PITH
ON Wariboko, DN Onunkwo, NA Tambari, PN Nnadi, BC Kornom and JC Okonkwo
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 174-177.
AbstractFull text pdf
Experimental evidences have shown that R. mangle possess important bioactive and medicinal potentials hence the study to investigate carcass characteristics and organ proportion of rabbits fed diets containing pith of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) pith. The study was carried out at the teaching and demonstration farm of Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (Ndele campus) Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The experimental diet was formulated to which extracted Rhizophora pith was added at different inclusion levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). Twenty-four clinically certified healthy waener rabbits of mixed breeds with initial body weight (BW) of about 0.5kg were used in the feeding trial that lasted for 8 weeks (56 days). Six rabbits (two rabbits per replicate were randomly distributed to 4 treatments (T1- control 0% Rhizophora pith), (T2- 5% Rhizophora pith), (T3- 10% Rhizophora pith), and (T4- 15% Rhizophora pith). Parameters measured include relative weight of giblets of liver, kidney, heart spleen and small intestine were also measured. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA using the general linear model of statistical analysis for sciences while differences among means were determined using Duncan’s multiple tests. The findings of the study showed that relative liver weight was significantly affected by the dietary treatments (P<0.05) at 5, 10 and 15% inclusion when compared to the liver weight in control group. Relative heart weight was more significantly affected by the dietary treatments (P<0.05) at 10% and 15% inclusion when compared to the heart weights in treatment 1 and 2. The weight of the small intestine was significantly affected by the dietary treatments (P<0.05) at 10% 15% inclusion when compared to the weight in control group, while at 5% level of inclusion it was not significant (P>0.05). Spleen weights was observed to increase linearly from control group to T4 (P<0.05). Rhizophora pith produced a significant increase in Na+ excretion rate (P<0.05) at both 5%, 10% and 15% inclusion levels and was non-significant (P>0.05) in K+ excretion across all levels. There was no adverse effect of feeding rhizopith on rabbit meat sensory quality.
Keywords: Carcass characteristics, Organ proportion, Rhizopith and Rabbit Does
|Phenotypic Characterization of Simien sheep in Simien Mountain Region, Ethiopia
Surafel Melaku, Alayu Kidane, Solomon Abegaz, Alemu Tarekegn and Assemu Tesfa
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 178-185.
AbstractFull text pdf
This study was aimed at characterizing Simien sheep using qualitative physical appearance traits, quantitative morphological traits and growth characteristics and investigating the relationship between quantitative morphological traits. Data on morphological characters and body measurements were collected from a total of 1000 sheep from Miligebsa and Dara kebeles. Plain and patchy coat color patterns were characteristics displayed in 57% and 43% of Simien sheep population, respectively. Further, 44.5% of female and 40% of male sheep were found to have a brown coat color. The breed was entirely fat tailed with the formation of a curved and upward tail. The average body measurements of Simien sheep were 24.9kg of body weight, 64.1cm of height at wither, 53.9cm of body length, 70.6cm of heart girth and 13.8cm of pelvic width. Heart girth was found to be the best estimator of live weight for both male and female sheep (85% and 85.5%, respectively) with prediction equations for ewes and rams: Y=-21.5±0.92X and Y=-23.4±0.92X, respectively under on-farm conditions. Therefore, the Simien sheep breed is one of the sheep breeds of Ethiopia characterized by short fat tail, with a plain and patchy coat color patterns dominated by brown color. Simien sheep attains its mature weight at eruption of three pairs of permanent incisors, which indicates that the sheep takes longer in duration to attain its mature body weight. Qualitative traits such as coat color type and pattern influenced the decision of farmers in choosing animals, and thus apparent economic value. At on-farm conditions heart girth can safely be applied to estimate live weight of Simien sheep using the determined prediction equations. The existing variations within the breed are good potential for selection, so improvement by selection can be considered as good strategy for the breed.
Keywords: Genetic diversity, Morphological traits, Qualitative, Quantitative and Simien sheep
|Semen Characteristics of Rabbit Buck Fed Rhizophora Mangle PITH
ON Wariboko, DN Onunkwo, PN Nnadi, BC Kornom, NA Tambari and JC Okonkwo
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 186-189.
AbstractFull text pdf
Rabbit as one animal with multi benefits for meat production need to be improved upon in the area of semen quality and quantity as it affects conception of does, hence this study to ascertain “rhizopith” effect on semen characteristics of rabbit buck. Forty-eight healthy mixed breed of adult rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) bucks of about 2.2kg average weight were investigated in an 84-days feed trial with rhizopith in a 4×3 Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Water and feed were served ad-libitum. Results indicated active, sluggish motile, non-motile, and abnormal cells, cells total count and semen volume to be significantly different (P˂0.05). The level of significance however, differed and were varied among treatment means (P˂0.05). Active cells and semen volume were highest for treatment four whose rhizopith inclusion rate was the highest (15%). Semen volume for treatment four was at least 150% above treatment one and 250% above treatments two and three respectively. Also, sluggish motile, non-motile and abnormal cells were least for treatment four (P˂0.05). It was observed from the result of the experiment that rabbit buck’s fed rhizopith greatly influenced the semen volume and abnormality of the live cells in the semen was also influenced. Therefore, inclusion of rhizopith is recommended in male rabbit and other animal diet to improve semen quality.
Keywords: Rhizophora mangle, Rhizopith, Rabbit Buck, Semen quality
|Biological Control of Aflatoxin Causing Organisms in Agricultural Commodities as an Integrated Environmentally Safe Approach
Hamzah Bhatti, Babar Ehsan Bajwa and Sabyan Faris Honey
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 190-193.
AbstractFull text pdf
Aflatoxins are produced by different strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, found in different agricultural commodities. Contamination of aflatoxin in food crops is a global issue and ingestion of such crops leads to drastic effects on health of animals and humans. Up to 25% of worlds agricultural commodities are thought to be contaminated with mycotoxins leading to economic constraints on exporting countries. Innovative technologies are being utilized to reduce aflatoxin contamination in food crops. Proper pre- and post- harvest technologies, heat treatment, chemical treatment and microbiological agents are some steps being utilized for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination. Amongst these technologies, biological control has the potential to successfully control and reduce aflatoxin contamination of agricultural crops by using competitive elimination of pathogenic strains of Aspergillus spp. by nonpathogenic strains.
Keywords: Aflatoxins, Biological control, Agricultural commodities, Technology
|Minimizing Post- Harvest Losses of Tomato through Demonstration of Preparation Techniques of Processed Tomato Paste to Small Scale Users in Tigray, Ethiopia
Taddesse T, Desalegn G and Dawit H
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 194-198.
AbstractFull text pdf
During production peak, oversupply of fresh tomatoes in the market can be observed and price is much lower than during lean periods (summer season). Vegetable processing is a new vision for farmers because market supply and price of fresh produce are very erratic. Since Fresh produce has very short shelf life, if farmers process their produce, their income can be improved while supplying diverse products to the market. MAMRERC was conducted a research on preparation of different products such as tomato paste, ketchup, Jelly and Jam. Physico-chemical properties and microbial properties (bacteria, yeast and mould) were studied for the products prepared. Microbial examination revealed that the product is safe to consume in the stay of 6 months at farmers level. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate wholesome and low cost processed tomato paste as an alternative for consumers by elongating the shelf life of tomatoes for several months and to benefit farmers, Entrepreneurs and small scale processors for generating their income. The activity was implemented in two potential tomato production woreda’s. A total of 20 female farmers were included in the project. Economic and perception data was collected and analyzed descriptively. In Terms of trial ability of the technology is well evaluated and it is found that the technology is much satisfactory. In terms of Relative advantage, the descriptive statistics and economic analysis revealed the new technique of preparation of tomato paste had an overall economic advantage. Moreover, the perception of women participants which confirms the relative advantages of the new technique as it is very effective and efficiency in minimizing the post-harvest losses of tomato. It was perceived that the technology is much more advantageous and acceptable. Hence, there is a need to scale out the reality for potential farmers, Entrepreneurs, cooperatives and other relevant actors by strengthening their awareness on the technology to use for them and give service around their area.
Keywords: Tomato paste, Demonstration
|Technical Efficiency and Yield Gap of Tef Farming in the Highlands of Ethiopia
Wudineh Getahun and Takele Mebratu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 199-204.
AbstractFull text pdf
Despite the research and extension efforts to intensify and improve tef farming, its productivity has remained low. Tef productivity is not only inevitably influenced by intensification but also by improving technical efficiencies. This study aimed at estimating technical efficiency, output gap and identifying determinants using production technology and inefficiency effects model. A one-step maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data collected from 404 sample households operated 1038 tef plots. The results showed that technical inefficiency effects are present and contain a significant random component in tef farming. It was found that 38% of the variability in average tef output was because of technical inefficiency. A significant variation of technical efficiency scores were present among farmers, ranges from 15.4% to 95.3% with the average technical efficiency of 81.6% implies that there is a room (18.4%) to increase tef output by improving the technical efficiency of tef famers without having additional inputs. The output gap because of technical inefficiencies on average was 295 kg/ha. Socioeconomic variables such as livestock holding, attending tef demonstration field days, farming structure and use of improved varieties were found to affect technical efficiency positively. These findings imply that any effort to influence policy and strategy on tef farming require to focus on these determinant factors.
Keywords: Technical efficiency, Yield gap, tef farming, Highlands of Ethiopia
|Evaluation of Sesbania macrantha Genotypes as Animal Feed at Lowland and Midland Areas: The Case of North Western Tigrai, Ethiopia
Kibrom Gebremedhin, Tsegay Gebregergs, Teklehaimanot Tsigab and Abraham Teklehaymanot
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 205-209.
AbstractFull text pdf
The study was conducted to evaluate forage production performance of different Sesbania macrantha genotypes in selected districts of northwestern Tigrai, northern Ethiopia. Five Sesbania macrantha genotypes called SM (Sesbania macrantha) 0064, SM 0347, SM 0342, SM 0449 and DZ 0092 (used as standard check, and registered as variety by Debreziet agricultural research center) were used for the evaluation trial. Data on emergence days, vigour, days to 50% flowering, plant height, branching ability, leaf to stem ratio, dry forage yield and chemical composition of the genotypes were collected. The collected data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and descriptive statistics. SM 0449 and SM 0342 had (p <0.05) shortest germination dates at Tahtay-Koraro whereas, it was similar at Tselemti and Laelay-Adyabo for all genotypes. SM 0342 was earlier (P<0.05) to reach 50% of flowering stage (141 days) at Tselemti, but it was similar at Tahtay-Koraro and Laelay-adyabo. Plant height of SM 0342, DZ 0092 and SM 0064 at Tselemti, SM 0347 at Tahtay-Koraro, SM 0347and SM 0342 at Laelay-Adyabo were tallest compared to the other genotypes (p <0.05). Total dry matter forage yield of SM 0342 and SM 0347 was higher at Tselemti and Tahtay-Koraro respectively (p <0.05), but both genotypes had similar yield at Laelay-adyabo. SM 0342 (20.3%), SM 0347 (20.2%) and SM 0064 (21.5%) had relatively higher CP content relative to DZ 0092 (standard check) and SM 0449. Therefore, SM 0342 at Tselemti and Laelay-adyabo, and SM 0347 at Tahtay-Koraro were performed well and recommended to their respective districts to fulfill feed shortage of the area.
Keywords: Crude protein, Forage, Germination date, Plant height, Sesbania macrantha
|Evaluation of Ethiopian Bread Wheat Varieties to Dominant Stem Rust Races (Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici) at Seedling Stage under Greenhouse Condition
Gizachew Hirpa Regasa, Girma Adugna Senbeta and Netsanet Bacha Hei
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 210-216.
AbstractFull text pdf
Stem rust (black rust) caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici is one of the most important air borne diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) which causes considerable yield losses in the world, including Ethiopia. The pathogen is capable to produce new physiological races that attack resistant varieties and develop epidemic under optimal environmental conditions which results in a serious yield loss. However, information on the reaction of bread wheat varieties to all dominant races identified in the country is limited. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the reactions of bread wheat varieties by artificial inoculation against the major virulent races at seedling stage. Six dominant races (TTTTF, TTKSK, TKTTF, TRTTF, RRTTF and JRCQC) were inoculated on the 39 commonly grown wheat varieties at seedling stage in the greenhouse. The result showed that there was no complete resistance (zero infection type) observed among the bread wheat varieties evaluated at seedling stage as all varieties allowed lesion formation by the pathogen. Seven bread wheat varieties namely; Honqolo, Huluka, ETBW-9017, ETBW-9042, Dilfiker, Wabe, and Millennium showed resistance reactions (IT = ; to 2) to all selected virulent races. These bread wheat varieties tested showed resistance reaction implying the presence of seedling resistance gene towards all virulent races whereas nine varieties (Danda’a, Kakaba, Kubsa, Shehan, Mekelle I, Mekelle II, Mekelle III, Mekelle IV and ETBW-7638) showed susceptible reactions (3- to 3+) to all selected virulent races. Hence, those varieties that showed resistance to virulent races at seedling growth stages can be used as the potential sources of resistance in the wheat breeding program.
Keywords: Bread wheat, Dominant races, Resistant, Seedling stage, Virulent
|Egg Quality Characteristics of Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Graded Levels of Fermented Mango Kernel (Mangifera spp) Composite Meal
Yerima Shettima Kolo, Hannatu Charles and 3Dauba Bema Damba
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(4): 217-221.
AbstractFull text pdf
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of FMKCM on the egg quality parameters of Japanese quails. One hundred and ninety five Japanese quails were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (I –V) of 39 hens each. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 13 hens per replicate. In each of the five diets, FMKCM was used to replace maize at 0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% for i, ii, ii, iv, and v, respectively. Quails in this study were fed over a period 84 days. Feed intake was measured daily and quails were weighed weekly. Eggs were collected on weekly basis for egg quality analysis. Results showed that all the egg quality parameters of quails fed treatment iv and v were significantly (P>0.05) higher than those fed other treatments. The results suggested that FMKCM could replace maize up to 25% without adverse effects, but for premium egg quality, replacement should not exceed 25%.
Keywords: Egg quality, Japanese quails, Fermented mango kernel, Maize