In Press Articles

Effects of ”Bokashi” Organic Fertilizer on Physico-chemical Soil Fertility and the Yield of Cocoa Trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in Daloa (Central-Western Ivory Coast)
Konan Jeanne Armelle Manhounou, Konate Zoumana, Kotaix Acka Jacques Alain, Konate Yacouba and Bakayoko Sidiky
Abstract
Abstract

Most cocoa-growing soils in Côte d’Ivoire are currently of low-quality chemical fertility. This makes it difficult to optimize the development of cocoa trees, and to ensure sustainable cocoa production in Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of this study was to improve soil fertility under cocoa trees and cocoa production in Côte d’Ivoire. The study was conducted in a completely randomized Fisher block design, with three repetitions over two years. The organic fertilizer “Bokashi” was applied as follows different doses in the crowns around the cocoa trees. Thus, treatments T0 (treatment control), T1 (2 kg of Bokashi), T2 (4 kg of Bokashi) and T3 (6 kg of Bokashi) fractionated in two equal inputs per year were made per cocoa plant. Soil samples were sampled before and after Bokashi application to assess initial fertility and at the end of the study. The fertilizing potential of “Bokashi” and cocoa yields fertilized with “Bokashi” were evaluated and compared with those of the T0 control treatment. The data collected were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the software SAS 9.4. The results obtained revealed that “Bokashi” contains nutrients which improve soil fertility and cocoa yields. The application of “Bokashi” has increased the soil’s content of elements essential for development and cocoa production. The application of Bokashi has reduced the levels of aluminum, which is toxic plants in high quantity. T2 treatment with a dose of 2 kg of “Bokashi” per year and per yields of 1351.05 and potential yields of 1351.05 kg and 1846.8 kg per hectare is the optimum dose for improving fertility soil chemistry and cocoa production.

Keywords: Bokashi, Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Fertility, Soils under cocoa trees.

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Effect of Ocimum sanctum Extract in Controlling Life Stages of Callosobruchus chinensis L.: An In-silico Approach
Dipanjan Dey, Lupamudra Borah, Sasanka Sekhar Ghosh and Suraj Chetri
Abstract
Abstract

In silico studies based on the targeted effect of bioactive phytochemicals allows the preparation of a more precise and less time-consuming experimental setup. Ocimum sanctum is an aromatic plant species whose secondary metabolites and essential oils are known for their therapeutic effects against a large number of human health disorders. It is also known to possess insecticidal properties. The targeted inhibition of biologically significant enzymes within insect bodies using plant-derived phytochemicals from O. sanctum presents a promising approach for controlling the life cycle of target insects. Assessment of in-silico interactions between these phytochemicals and key enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and alpha-amylase reveals their efficacy in biologically controlling pest species Callosobruchus chinensis. The results of the in silico analysis are further corroborated with direct toxicity tests using methanolic extracts of O. sanctum targeted at specific stages of the life cycle of the target pest. Based on the result obtained from the present study 6.16% concentration of O. sanctum is found to be LC50 for adult stage and 3.9% concentration of O. sanctum is found to be LC50 for egg stage of C. chinensis. The results affirm that O. sanctum extracts can be used in the biocontrol of C. chinensis, a stored grain pest.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Callosobruchus chinensis, in silico, Ocimum sanctum, Phytochemicals.

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Overview of Quality Control and Safety in Public Health Pest Laboratory in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Elkhalifa SM, Nuha Mustafa Altilmisani, Faisal Albishri, Hassan A Gad, Talha A. Al-Dubai and Esam Omar Al-Wesabi
Abstract
Abstract

Quality and safety control at the Public Health Pests Laboratory (PHPL) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, has received great attention as part of the ongoing endeavors to protect workers and the surrounding environment, in line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. This article aims to give an overview of the quality control and safety measures implemented within the PHPL in Jeddah, KSA. It reflects upon successful initiatives undertaken to strengthen the quality control and safety system while also proposing recommendations to sustain progress and enhance the overall quality control and safety framework within the PHPL in Jeddah, KSA. Broadly, an examination of quality and safety control documentation, as well as the regulatory systems within the KSA, has been conducted across various ministries and institutes related to quality and safety control. Specifically, this scrutiny has been applied to laboratory operations and their outcomes. The emphasis on quality control within the KSA is evident, aligning with regulations and laws set forth by entities such as Occupational Health in the labor system, Saudi Standards, Metrology (SASO), the Quality Organization, the National Strategic Program for Occupational Health, and the Technical Rules and Regulations of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Human Development. In addition, Quality control and safety were strengthened in the public health pests laboratory in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, by issuing; a security and safety manual, an operational plan for safe evacuation during an emergency, and implementing as a practical experiment; a quality policy; and Safety tools and equipment provided within the laboratory.

Keywords: Quality control, Safety, Public health laboratory, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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Physiological and Morphological Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to Seed Priming with Indole Acetic Acid as Plant Growth Regulator
Mohammed O Alshaharni
Abstract
Abstract

The use of plant growth hormones has become increasingly important in agriculture as they have the potential to improve plant growth, act as slow-release fertilizers, and facilitate targeted delivery of agrochemicals for sustainable crop production. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Indole acetic acid (IAA) on the growth rate and antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and tomato plants. Different concentrations of IAA (control, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20mmol.L-1) were applied for 24 hours using seed priming techniques for wheat and tomato seeds. Our results showed that the application of IAA resulted in enhanced plant height, shoot and root biomass, and leaf area. Chlorophyll (a, b) and total chlorophyll contents were also promoted in wheat and tomato with varying responses. The highest growth level in wheat was recorded at 2.5mmol.L-1 treatment, whereas in tomato, it was recorded at 5mmol.L-1 followed by 10mmol.L-1 treatment. Moreover, the application of IAA significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities such as Glutathione, Nitric Oxide, and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that IAA has a different effect on wheat and tomato seed priming, indicating that it may increase plant growth and development in different responses.

Keywords: Growth regulators; Antioxidant Enzymes; Growth Rate; Chlorophyll content

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Enhancing Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment by Subcutaneous Methotrexate Injections and Anti-IL-2 Antibody Synthesis
Sabuh Sagheer, Muhammad Shahzaib Rasheed, Fatima Ashraf, Aina Rao, Mehreen Fatima, Muhammad Noman Ajmal, Ayesha Ameen, Khalil Mohamed, Ayesha Khan, Faaiz Ali, Aqeel Ahmed, Farzeen, Sidra Iqbal, Tabish Arif, Zara Abid, Hassan Raza, Muhammad Talha Mujeeb, Anadil Noel, Farhat Batool, Muhammad Waqas, Komal Shahzadi, and Muhammad Zubair Zafar
Abstract
Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an incapacitating autoimmune disorder marked by joint inflammation, cartilage degradation, and bone erosion, often results in disability. Diagnosis relies on detecting Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), offering insights into disease progression before symptoms emerge. While Methotrexate (MTX) is a standard RA treatment, concerns over insufficient responses and gastrointestinal side effects prompt exploration of subcutaneous MTX injections. This method, established in the USA and Europe and recently approved in Japan, presents a potentially safer and more effective alternative. Additionally, research indicates that elevated Interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels correlate with reduced regulatory T-cell (Treg) levels, exacerbating RA progression. Mouse models demonstrate promise in slowing RA through IL-2 antibody-mediated inhibition, a concept validated in clinical studies involving RA patients. The investigation extends to the potential use of subcutaneous MTX injections as a preferable treatment modality in Pakistan, suggesting a comprehensive approach to managing RA.

Keywords: Interleukin 2, Clinical Studies, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Methotrexate, Antibodies

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Assessment of Ecological and Biological Characteristics of Gleditsia triacanthos L. for Agroforestry of Degraded Areas
Aliya Khuzhakhmetova and Kristina Melnik
Abstract
Abstract

Gleditsia triacanthos as a drought-tolerant multipurpose species, is introduced into artificial plantings in the southern regions of Russia. The aim is to study the ecological and biological features of Gleditsia triacanthos in the conditions of the northern border of their cultivation (Volgograd Oblast, Russia). The studies were conducted from February to October annually (from 2019 to 2023) in the field (assessment of winter hardiness and drought resistance, measurement of taxational and reproductive indices, recording the passage of phenological phases, selection of plant samples – leaves, fruits) and laboratory conditions (freezing of shoots, study of water deficit parameters, water-holding capacity, assessment of fruit quality). It was established that the northern limit of cultivation of Gleditsia triacanthos is V zone of winter hardiness. Taxation parameters of G. triacanthos and the influence of soil-climatic conditions on them were revealed. Ranking of species by winter hardiness was carried out. G. triacanthos in the first variant (at –37 °C) had insignificant damage to buds (from 6 to 18%), annual shoots (from 4 to 20%) and perennial shoots (from 2 to 10%). The variability of fruiting indicators under the conditions of stress factor exposure was revealed. The average and low level of variability was revealed for most morphological traits of fruits and seeds. Weather conditions during fruit ripening have a noticeable effect on seed weight. Reproductive parameters of G. triacanthos var inermis are more influenced by environmental conditions, which reflects correlations between morphometric parameters of fruits and seeds.

Keywords: Gleditsia triacanthos L.; Introduction; Bioecological features; Artificial plantations.

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Biofertilizers Production and Climate Changes on Environmental Prospective Applications for some Nanoparticles Produced from some Microbial Isolates
Aiad Abdelkareim Akhreim, Mahmoud F Gaballa, Gomaa Sulaiman and Idress Hamad Attitalla
Abstract
Abstract

This study aimed to enhance microbial isolates’ growth and nutrient availability through the use of a mixed biofertilizer and various nutritional media. Additionally, the impact of adding ZnO nanoparticles on agricultural soil fertility and the development of microbial isolates was investigated. The preservation of microbial isolates, maintenance of the ideal food-to-microorganism ratio, and vitality assurance were achieved through this procedure. The resulting liquid biological fertilizer, containing a beneficial and eco-friendly community of living microorganisms, can be safely applied to agricultural soil. The application of zinc oxide as a nano-composite to a solution containing microorganisms effectively fertilized banana plants without causing harm or pollution. Biofertilizers, which are organic and contain specific microorganisms, offer a greener alternative to chemical fertilizers, meeting plant nutritional needs while minimizing environmental pollution. Correct utilization of biofertilizers is crucial for preserving soil quality, increasing crop yields, and protecting the environment.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Eco-friendly, Chemical fertilization, Biological control, Biocidal, Fungicide

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Financial Support for Organic Agricultural Production: Experience of Some EU Countries and Prospects for Ukraine
Bogdan Derevyanko, Liudmyla Nikolenko, Oleksandra Severinova, Olha Turkot and Olena Volkovych
Abstract
Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to study financial support for creating and operating farms that produce organic products in certain EU countries and to provide proposals for implementing financial support measures in Ukraine during the war and post-war period. To achieve this goal, the following research methods were used: hermeneutic semantic analysis, systemic-structural analysis, comparative legal method, etc. The hermeneutic semantic analysis was used to study financial support for creating organic farms in Ukraine. Proposals were made to support organic farming in Ukraine using the systemic-structural analysis based on the experience of different countries. The comparative legal method was used when considering financial support for creating organic farms in some EU countries (Poland, Spain, Austria, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Romania). The scientific novelty lies in the study of financial support for the creation of organic farms in some EU countries and Ukraine, as well as in the provision of proposals for the implementation and receipt of financial support for farms producing organic products in war and post-war Ukraine. The paper pointed out the need for Ukrainian farms to organize effective legal work, manifesting in the high-quality and timely development of the necessary documents and in the preparation and approval by the state of programs to assist farms in their creation and production of organic products.

Keywords: Food security, Economic security, Financial support, Organic farms, Organic products, European Union countries.

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