Volume 10, No. 2, 2021

Anti-fungal Screening of Five Medicinal Plants used in Nigeria
Zanna Hassan, Yahaya Tijani, Shettima Abubakar, Babagana Modu and Sani Muhammad Uzairu
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(2): 65-68.
Abstract
Abstract

This study was specifically designed to evaluate anti-fungal properties of methanolic extracts of Rumex acetosa, M.scaber, Senna Occidentalis, Lawsonia inermis and Spermacoce found widely distributed in Nigeria. Three fungal organisms were tested: Candida albicans, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. Methanolic extracts of the plant materials were prepared by polarity based-solvent extraction. The anti-fungal properties were examined by the disc dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most potent extracts was ascertained by micro-broth dilution method The zones of inhibition pattern observed suggested that Rumex acetosa, M.scaber, Lawsonia inermis and Spermacoce were effective against Candida albicans with diameter (mm) of 29.50±0.29, 29.33±0.66, 29.60±0.27 and 30.49±1.66 respectively. A similar pattern was observed against Aspergillus, and Penicillium. However, Senna Occidentalis did not show any activity against all the tested organisms. The inhibitory pattern was further revealed by the MIC values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinone, flavonoids, tannins and carotenoids.

Keywords: Rumex acetosa, Spermacoce, Aspergillus, Penicillium, anti-fungal.

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Distribution and Importance of Striga hermonthica on Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] in Tigray Regional State of Ethiopia: A Preliminary Survey
Shugute Addisu and Gebrekidan Feleke
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(2): 69-73.
Abstract
Abstract

Historically, the issue of Striga was associated with the cereal culture in Tigray, primarily with crops such as sorghum, maize and finger millet. This parasitic weed has recently extended its host range and is becoming increasingly common in other crops such as tef and many wild grass types. A survey was conducted in the main cropping season of 2016/17; to determine the distribution and significance of Striga hermonthica infestation in tef production areas and to record the degree and intensity of Striga hermonthica infestation on tef production. The survey was carried out along the main road, which is accessible for a vehicle; at an interval of about 5-10km. The average of Striga population density (number /m2) was taken at each sampling area of 2m x 2m sampling. As a result, the distribution and severity of Striga were highest in the Central followed by the Northwest and Eastern Zones. The overall Striga incidence in 32 tef field samples from districts with Striga was 90.6%. The highest density of Striga shoots per m2 was recorded at Tahtay Maychew (49) followed by Lailay Maychew (46), Tahtay Koraro (45) and Adwa (41), respectively. In addition to Striga infestation, Setaria pumila and Phalaris paradoxa were the most frequent and dominant weed species in the surveyed areas of tef. Therefore, to minimize and manage the spread of Striga hermonthica infestation on tef all stakeholders should collaborate through participatory approaches and adopt appropriate measures. All stakeholders should therefore collaborate through participatory approaches and take appropriate measures to minimize and manage the spread of Striga hermonthica infestation on tef.

Keywords: Distribution, Eragrostis tef, Striga hermonthica, Tef.

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Application of Combining Ability in Plant Breeding
Temesgen Begna
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(2): 74-83.
Abstract
Abstract

Combining ability is the ability of a genotype to transmit superior performance to its crosses. General combining ability is the average performance of genotype in a series of hybrid combinations and it measures additive gene action while specific combining ability is the performance of parents in specific crosses. Combining ability analysis helps in the identification of parents with high general combining ability (gca) effects and cross combinations with high specific combining effects (sca) for commercial exploitation of heterosis and isolation of pure lines among the progenies of the heterotic hybrids. Mating design refers to the procedure of producing the progenies in plant breeding. Plant breeders and geneticists use different form of mating designs and arrangements theoretically and practically for targeted purpose. Selection of good mating design is necessary for getting success in plant breeding. For production of different progenies and achievement of their objectives, plant breeders used different mating designs and arrangements. In all mating designs crossing is done in half sibs and full sib methods by taking individuals randomly. Selection of parental materials and good mating designs in conventional plant breeding are the keys to the successful plant breeding program. However, there are several factors affecting the choices of mating designs. Choice of mating designs depends upon several factors i.e. objective of study, time, space and other biological problems or limitations. In all mating designs, the individuals are taken randomly and crossed to produce progenies which are related to each other as half-sibs or full-sibs. A form of multivariate analysis or the analysis of variance can be adopted to estimate the components of variances. It provides easy and quick insight of the different form of mating designs and some statistical components for successful plant breeding. Generally, combining is playing a key role in estimation of genetic components and selection of suitable parents and hybrids in order to boost crop productivity. The knowledge of combining ability is very critical to determine the breeding procedure to improve the desirable traits. There is possibility to improve parents through selection, when the ratio of general combining ability to specific combining ability is greater than unity and if general combining ability to specific combining ability is less than unity, the breeding procedure is designed heterosis breeding to improve the desired traits.

Keywords: Combining ability, General combining ability, Specific combining ability, Mating design.

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