Volume 6, No. 3, 2017
|Assessment and Identification of Weed Flora Associated to Medicinal and Aromatic Plants at Wondo Genet District, Ethiopia
Negasu Guteta Bayisa and Nigusie Hundesa
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 136-140.
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Assessment of weed flora associated with aromatic and medicinal plants was carried out in Wondo Genet district of Sidama Zone, South nation, Nationality and People National Regional State, Ethiopia in the years of 2014 to 2016 during cropping seasons. The assessment was made to identify, quantify and prioritize the major weeds. Aromatic and medicinal plants field were purposively selected and after accepting the sample point sampling was done by following an inverted W-pattern within the field. The number of individuals of each species was determined in a 1mx1m (1m2) quadrant at each of the 9-12 locations using metal quadrants were taken from each fields of aromatic and medicinal plants. A total of 43 weed species belonging to 19 families and 36 genera were identified and recorded. Of these, 36 species were annuals and 7 species were perennials. The most important families based on the number of taxa were ten species for Asteraceae, six species for Poaceae and four species for Leguminosae constituting 47.62% of the total weed flora. Galinsoga parviflora, Bidens pilosa, Oxalis anthelmintica and Ageratum conycoides were found to be the most frequent (35.31-75.42), abundant (6.34-23.79) and dominant (5.5-20.63) broad leaved weed species whereas Eriochloa villosa, Commelina benghalensis and Rottboalliaco chinchinesis were most frequent (27.81-29.17), abundant (1.8-2.94) and dominant (1.56-2.55) grass weed species and Cyperus rotundus, was only sedges and it was the most frequent, abundant and dominant 68.5,20.99 and 18.20 respectively in the survey areas. The data from the current survey can be used in the future as a reference of weed species database of the area and then to determine the impact of crop management and other factors on weed species composition, and to facilitate the designing and establishment of site -specific weed management.
Keywords: Assessment, Identification, Weed flora, Aromatic, Medicinal frequency, Abundance and dominance
|Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Spanish Mint (Mentha spicata ‘Spanish Pointed’) as Influenced by Environment and Harvesting Cycle
Basazinew Degu, Sulti Amano and Beemnet Mengesha
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 141-144.
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The trial was conducted at three locations such as at Wondo Genet, Hawassa and Koka during 2014/2015 to determine appropriate environment and harvesting cycle for enhancing the growth, yield and yield components of Spanish mint. The experiment comprised two levels of harvesting cycle (Cycle 1 and Cycle 2) were used on a plot size of 1.8 m length and 3.6 m width arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. SAS (version 9) software was used to compute the analysis of variance. The LSD test was used to compare the mean separations at 5 % probability level. The result showed that, location had a significant influence on fresh leaf weight/plant, fresh leaf yield/ha and percent essential oil content; however, it did not significantly influence on plant height and essential oil yield/ha. The highest fresh leaf weight/plant and fresh leaf yield/ha was obtained at Wondo Genet; whereas, the least values were obtained at Hawassa. Harvesting cycle had a significant influence on plant height, fresh leaf weight/plant and fresh leaf yield/ha; however, percent essential oil content and essential oil yield/ha were not influenced by the different in harvesting cycle. The highest plant height was obtained at the first harvesting cycle; whereas, the least value was obtained at the second harvesting cycle. Conversely, the highest fresh leaf biomasses per plant and per hectare were obtained at the second harvesting cycle. In contrast, the least fresh leaf biomasses per plant and per hectare were obtained at the first harvesting cycle. Moreover, the interaction of the two factors had a significant influence on all parameters like plant height, fresh leaf weight/plant, fresh leaf yield/ha, percent essential oil content and essential oil yield/ha. Therefore, cultivation of Spanish mint at Wondo Genet and at a place where having identical environment with Wondo Genet is much more advantageous than Hawassa and Koka for fresh leaf production. But for essential oil production, cultivation of Spanish mint at Hawassa and at a place where having identical environment with Hawassa is advantageous than Wondo Genet and Koka.
Keywords: Spanish mint, Fresh leaf yield, Essential oil yield
|Review on Effect of Different Time of Planting and Number of Nodes on Survival and Growth of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Cuttings Under Jimma Condition
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 145-148.
AbstractFull text pdf
Though seed is the traditional source of planting material and convenient to use it produces heterogeneous plant having variable yield, quality and suitability for fermentation. Besides variability, seed propagation delays the plant to reach for plucking. Vegetative propagation produces uniform plants which grow faster as compared to plants raised from seed. plantings in June and July increased the survival percentage. Single node cuttings were exhibited a significant survival rate as compared to double node cuttings. The early dates of planting proved to affect survival rate positively. As the single node cuttings had more branches and number of leaves than double node cuttings, the most suitable types of cuttings were single node cuttings and the performance of single node cuttings was the best planted in June.
Keywords: Tea, Propagation, Single node Cuttings, Double node Cuttings
|Assessment of Phytoplankton Community of Beresa Reservoir and Its Implication to the Water Quality
Nibret Tariku and Girum Tamire
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 149-152.
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Beresa reservoir has been exposed to industries and anthropogenic activities from local people in past years. In order to assess the water quality status of the reservoir, the phytoplankton community (species composition) and their relative abundance was examined during the study period, from January-June, 2016. Species belonging to different classes were identified including Chlorophytes (green algae), Baccilariophytes (diatoms), Cyanophytes (blue-green) and cryptophytes. Chlorophytes were the most dominant in terms of species richness and abundance and it is constituted about 40% of the total algal population. Scenedesmus spp, straurastum spp, Cosmarium spp and Closterium spp were the most abundant spp in the class. Baccilariophytes were represented by Cyclotella, Aulacoserial, Melosira and Nitzschia, whereas Cyanophytes were relatively dominated by Microcystis flos-aquae. The least of number of species was recorded for Cryptophytes and Cryptomonas spp was relatively dominant in the class. The relative dominance of phytoplankton species including Straurastum spp, Cosmarium spp, and Closterium spp indicated moderate enrichment of nutrients in the reservoir. Whereas, the presence of scarce Cyanaophytes likes Microcystis flos-aquae, Oscillatoria agardhii depicted an increasing trend in nutrient content of the reservoir. The result seemed to indicate that the trophic status of the reservoir to fall in mesotrophic state and at the time of this study the reservoir was not susceptible to generational algal blooms.
Keywords: Beresa reservoir, Biomass, Phytoplankton, Water quality
|Response of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Varieties to Blended Fertilizer on yield, yield component and nutritional content under Irrigation in Raya Valley, Northern Ethiopia
Gebremeskel Gebrekorkos, Yemane G Egziabher and Solomon Habtu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 153-162.
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Sorghum productivity has been limited mainly by declining soil fertility and shortage of rain fall in the study area. Appropriate (economic and judicious use) of fertilization for a given crop is necessary for sustainable crop production. A field experiment was thus conducted in Mehoni Agricultural Research center (MhARC) test station in 2016/2017cropping season to investigate the effect of blended fertilizer on yield components, yield and nutritional content of sorghum varieties under irrigation. The treatments consisted of one local sorghum variety (Kodom) and two improved varieties (MekoI and Melkam) as well as six fertilizer types (control, 100 kg ha -1 DAP and 100 kg ha-1 urea, blended NPS fertilizer, Blended NPSZn, Blended NPSZn + N + P and blended fertilizer NPSKZn) laid out in split plot design that the three sorghum varieties was assigned in the main plot and six fertilizer types in the sub plot with three replications. The analysis of variance result indicated that the growth, yield components and yield were significantly influenced by the main effect of variety and fertilizer except the panicle length in the fertilizers. The highest plant height (281.3cm), leaf area (7392cm2), LAI (4.93), 1000 kernel weight(46.28g) and above ground dry biomass(15984kg ha-1) were recorded at the late maturing and local variety of Kodom .On the other hand, the highest panicle length(30.98cm), panicle weight(100.84 g), harvest index(0.46), water productivity(1.23 kgm-3), grain yield (4962 kg ha -1) and nutritional value were obtained under Melkam. With regards to the blended fertilizer, the maximum plant growth parameter, yield component, nutritional value and grain yield (5107 kg ha-1) were obtained from the treatment that received blended fertilizer amended with N and P fertilizers (F5).The highest grain yield (5530.86 kg ha-1) were achieved in Melkam variety and blended fertilizer amended with N and P, and this can thus be recommended for the study area.The maximum net benefit (44601.62 ETB ha-1) also obtained from the combination treatment of Melkam with blended fertilizer amended with N and P.
Keywords: Blended fertilizer, Economic analysis, Irrigation, Nutritional quality, Sorghum yield
|Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam
NShettima AY, Tijjani AM, Goni AT, Sanda FA, Ali H, Modu B and Tijani Y
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 163-167.
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Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, lignins, sterols and tannins. The carbohydrates were mainly reducing sugars and ketoses. The antimicrobial effects of the aqueous leave extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Shigella dysentriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogene, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacteria species, Candida albican and Aspergillus niger was studied. Escherichia coli was the most susceptible (13±1.4 mm) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12±1.73 mm) and Shigella dysentriae (10±1.73 mm). Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogene, Bacillus subtilis and Corynebacteria species were not inhibited by the extract. Extract did not inhibit the growth of fungal isolates, Candida albican and Aspergillus niger. The aqueous leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana could be used in treating diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysentriae.
Keywords: Ziziphus mauritiana, antimicrobial, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysentriae
|Effects of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Carica papaya on some Haematological and Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Strain Albino Rats
Zanna Modu, Shettima Abba Yagana, Daja Aliyu, Isah Danjuma and Warabe Mohammed Adamu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 168-173.
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The plant Carica papaya is a member of the family Caricaceaae with four genera. It is a large perennial herb with a rapid growth rate. It is called “pawpaw” in English, “papita” in Hindi and “Gwanda” in Hausa. White wistar strain albino rats weighing between 120-180 g were used to investigate the sub-acute toxicity effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya. There were increase in the RBC count of the groups given 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg of the extract with mean of values 6.81±0.01, 7.10±0.10, 7.30±0.07 and 8.20±0.28 ×106 /mm3 when compared with the control group with mean values of 5.65±0.33, 5.65±0.33, 5.20±0.37 and 6.30±0.19 ×106 /mm3. There were also increase in the PCV count of the groups given 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg with mean values of 47.75±0.95, 49.75±0.63, and 51.00±0.58 % when compared with the control groups with mean values of 44.00±0.41, 47.00±0.41, and 46.25±2.10 %. The extract had no effect on white blood cell (WBC) at the doses tested. There was no significant (P˂0.05) difference between the treated and control groups. The extract did not alter the levels of Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase, Urea, Albumin and creatinine. Therefore, aqueous leaves extract of Carica papaya did not possess any toxic effect and hence can be safe for oral consumption at doses tested.
Keywords: Carica papaya Linn, Packed cell volume, Red blood cells, Aspartate transaminase (AST), Wistar albino rats and Urea
|Analysis of Attributes and Appropriateness of Cassava/Maize/Egusi Intercrop Technology in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria
Chukwu AO, UT Osuji, GI Ikeanyionwu and KC Orgu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 174-177.
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The study analysed the attribute and appropriateness of Cassava/Maize/Egusi (C/M/E) intercrop technology in relation to its adoption in Oweeri Agricultural Zone of Imo State. Specifically, the study assessed various attributes of the technology, examined its appropriateness, determined farmer perception of the technology in relation to its adoption and ascertained the situational factors influencing its adoption. Both extension contact and non-contact farmers were selected through multi-stage random sampling technique. A total of fifty (50) farmers were used for the study. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire designed in a three point Likert Scale type. Mean statistic and percentages were used for data analysis. Result showed that with the overall mean of 2.07, the technology possessed attributes favourable for its acceptability. Also, with the central mean of 2.33, there was indication that the technology attributes are positive in relation to its adoption. Farmers perceived the technology to be technically and economically feasible (2.18 and 2.30), socially acceptable (2.28), environmentally safe (2.26) and sustainable (2.20). Result further showed that secured land tenure system (2.66), access to credit and ready market (2.66 and 2.70), accessibility to locality (2.72) and ability to obtain specific input (2.70) were major situational factors influencing adoption of the technology. The study recommends that technologies developed by research should be appropriate and possess attributes that farmers can find favourable, for this is expected to enhance adoption.
Keywords: Appropriateness Attributes, Intercrop, Technology
|Assessment of Factors Influencing Effectiveness of Agricultural Technology Delivery in Imo State, Nigeria
Chukwu AO, Akwiwu UN, Akande SN and Orgu KC
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2017, 6(3): 178-182.
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The study assessed factors influencing effectiveness of Agricultural Technology Delivery in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it examined the most effective agricultural technology delivery methods and strategy, identified the most rewarding agricultural technology delivery strategy, examined Extension Agents and Farmer perception about the factors influencing effectiveness of agricultural technology delivery and ascertained the socio-economic characteristics of Extension Agents (EAs) influencing their effectiveness in agricultural technology delivery. A hypothesis that the socio-economic characteristics of EAs do not have any significant influence on their effectiveness in agricultural technology delivery was postulated and tested. Multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents which comprised of 54 EAs and 90 farmers. A structured instrument designed in a likert scale format was used to collect the primary data. Analysis was carried out using percentages, mean statistics and logistics regression model. Result showed that individual farm and home visits (3.67) and group methods (3.56) were the most effective methods in agricultural technology delivery. Giving out of bonus as motivation to farmer effective participation in technology delivery (77.7%) was considered the most rewarding strategy of the EAs in extension service delivery. Praising (X ̅=3.70), agricultural shows for farmers (X ̅=3.72) and motivation (X ̅=3.96) were identified as the most effective technology delivery strategy. Result further showed that insufficient and in appropriate agricultural technology (3.15 and 3.17), low extension-agent-to-farmer ratio (3.28 and 3.55), inadequate and unstable funding (3.57 and 3.63) and poor logistics support to staff (3.22 and 3.34) were major factors influencing agricultural technology delivery as perceived by both groups of respondent. Hypothesis tested showed that the socio-economic characteristics of EAs significantly influenced their effectiveness in agricultural technology delivery. The study however recommended the need to motivate both the EAs and farmers adequately to enhance effectiveness and full participation in agricultural extension delivery in general.
Keywords: Agriculture, Effectiveness, Technology Delivery