Volume 7, No. 1, 2018
|Fungi Associated with Seedling Diseases of Eucalyptus saligna and Prunus africana in Cameroon and Chemical Control of Cercospora Leaf Spot
Joseph Fovo Djeugap, Vanessa Nanda and Elie Kamdoum Keuete and Fidèle Chounnan
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 1-6.
AbstractFull text pdf
Seedlings diseases are one of the main biotic constraints in seedling production of Eucalyptus saligna and Prunus africana in Cameroon. Unfortunately, these diseases are not yet identified. The aim of this study was to contribute to the improvement of production of healthy seedlings of E. saligna and P. africana. To achieve this, infected leaves of the two seedlings were collected and fungi isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, then identified based on their morphological and microscopic characteristics by using reference documents. Antifungal activity of the following synthetic fungicides: Metalaxyl (8%) + Mancozeb (64%) active ingredient (a.i.) of Fongistar 72% WP, Prothioconazole (250 g/l) a.i. of Fongipro WG, Chlorothalonil (400 g/kg) + Dimethomorph (80 g/kg) a.i. of Sphinx 480 WDG and Cupper oxyde (86%) a.i. of Nordox 75 WG was tested in vitro at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml on the growth of Cercospora sp on PDA and in plantae at prescribed doses by the manufacturer. Results show that seedlings of E. saligna and P. africana are infected by various fungi of phytopathological importance, the most common being Cercospora sp (25% and 27.8% in E. saligna and P. africana respectively) followed by Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia sp. In vitro tests reveal that fungicide formulations Fongipro WG and Sphinx 480 WDG at 2 mg/ml had the highest significant (P<0.05) percent inhibition (94.12 and 100% respectively), and the lowest EC50 and EC90 compared to other fungicides. Seedlings treated with Fongipro WG, Fongistar 72% WP and Sphinx 480 WDG gave the lowest disease incidence and severity on seedlings of the two plant species. Seedlings of P. africana were more susceptible to Cercospora leaf spot compared to E. saligna in the study area. The study shows that Cercospora leaf spot is the main foliar disease of E. saligna and P. africana seedlings and fungicides Fongipro WG, Fongistar 72% WP or Sphinx 480 WDG could be suitable for homologation against Cercospora leaf spot of both species in the nursery.
Keywords: Cercospora leaf spot, Disease incidence and severity, Eucalyptus, Pygeum, Synthetic fungicides
|Seedborne Fungi, Cercospora Leaf Spot of Seedlings and Effect of Substrates on Germination, Seed Infection and Growth of Lophira alata (Azobé) in Cameroon
Joseph Fovo Djeugap, Hilda Abangawoh, Bernard Tieche and Narcisse Lekeng Dongmo
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 7-12.
AbstractFull text pdf
Seedborne fungi are among the main causes of low productivity of forestery nursery in the world. This study was carried out with the objective to contribute to improving the productivity of Lophira alata in Cameroon through the knowledge of seedborne fungi and diseases affecting the germination and growth of Azobe’s seedlings in different substrates. To achieve this, the following substrates: red forest soil (RFS), cultivated soil (CS), a mixture of red forest soil and sand (RFSS) in a ratio of 1/1 and a mixture of red forest soil, sand and poultry manure in a ratio of 3/1/1 (RFSSP) were used to evaluate the germination and the infection of seed bank of the national school of forestry (Mbalmayo, Cameroon), growth and Cercospora leaf spot incidence and severity of seedlings in the nursery. Results showed that frequently isolated fungi were Fusarium oxysporum (40-75%), Rhizoctonia solani (10-35%) and Aspergillus niger (10-25%) on the seeds and Cercospora sp (86%) on seedlings. Germination and growth rate of Azobe is very low while seed infection is very high. The substrate RFS gave significantly (P<0.05) higher germination (18.6%) with the lower seed infection (81.4%), 62 days after sowing (DAS) than the other substrates. There was no significant difference in collar diameter and number of leaves both at 70 and 84 DAS between the substrates. The height of seedlings was significantly higher in RFSSP (14.8 and 15.7 cm at 70 and 84 DAS respectively) compared to other substrates; however, with this substrate, Cercospora leaf spot incidence (99.6%) and severity (68.1%) were higher at 84 DAS. The results provide basic information needed for the development of control measures of seedborne fungi and Cercospora leaf spot of L. alata in Cameroon.
Keywords: Azobe, Cercospora leaf spot, Germination, Seed borne fungi, Substrates
|Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed Pleurotus tuber regium Biodegraded Ground Nut Shells Included Diets
Wuanor AA, JA Ayoade and PA Saingbe
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 13-18.
AbstractFull text pdf
The potentials of groundnut shells bioconverted using white rot fungus, Pleurotus tuber-regium as feed for growing West African Dwarf goats was evaluated in this study. Samples of ground nut shells were degraded using Pleurotus tuber regium for 30 days and then analyzed for proximate and crude fibre fractions. Twenty intact West African dwarf goat (WAD) bucks weighing between 6.0-6.5 kg were randomly allocated to five treatment diets containing varying levels of undegraded ground nut shells (UGNS) and Pleurotus tuber regium biodegraded ground nut shells (PT-GNS) in a Completely Randomized Design for the feeding trial. The totally mixed rations for the study were formulated using maize offal, brewers dried grain, soy bean meal, palm kernel cake, bone ash and salt with the pleurotus tuber regium biodegraded ground nut shells replacing undegraded ground nut shells at 0.0% (T1), 3.75% (T2), 7.50% (T3), 11.25% (T4) and 15.00% (T5). Result showed that fungal degradation increased the crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and ash contents but reduced the dry matter, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents Parameters measured in the feeding trial included average daily feed intake, average daily body weight gain, final body weight and feed conversion ratio. The result of the feeding trial which lasted for 84 days showed significant difference (P<0.05) in all growth performance parameters in favour of the bucks in T5 whose values were 213.04 g against 198.48, 189.70, 199.79 and 203.61g for T1, T2, T3 and T4 for average daily feed intake; 83.42 g against 36.10, 45.98, 51.75 and 65.68 g for T1, T2, T3 and T4 for average daily weight gain; 13.05 kg against 9.19, 9.98, 10.31, 11.65 and 13.05 kg for T1, T2, T3 and T4 for final body weight and 5.65 against 8.55, 7.55, 7.07 and 6.73 for T1, T2, T3 and T4 for feed conversion ratio. It was thus concluded that the pleurotus tuber regium biodegraded groundnut shell inclusion in diets enhanced the growth performance of the goats. It was finally recommended that ground nut shells should be biodegraded using pleurotus tuber regium before inclusion in diets of West African Dwarf goats.
Keywords: Performance, Goats, Ground nut shells, Biodegradation, Pleurotus tuber regium
|Rangelands Biodiversity Conservation and Management
Alemayehu Mengistu, Gezahagn Kebede, Fekede Feyissa and Getnet Assefa
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 19-29.
AbstractFull text pdf
Biodiversity is a term given to the variety of life on earth and the natural patterns it forms. It often classified at three levels, which are genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. Genetic diversity represents the heritable variation within and between populations of organisms. Species diversity is measured by the total number of species in a given study area. Ecosystem diversity refers the variety of different habitats. Evidence shows that, there is a highly complex relationship between species and ecosystem diversities. Rangelands are characterized by a high biodiversity, which is economically important both locally and nationally. Apart from this role, rangelands serve for a number of functions such as ecological, ethical and the protection of gene pool. Rangelands are sources of forage/fodder for about 360 million cattle and over 600 million sheep and goats for an estimated 100 million people in arid areas. Eastern Africa rangelands harbor a rich agro biodiversity of cultivated food crops and their wild relatives, which contribute to crop improvement programs and food security. Thus, in order to sustain the benefits of biodiversity, conservation is needed at all levels. Rangelands can be used sustainably if their ecosystems are maintained intact and they are most productive when their components are put to a variety of uses. There are two main conservation methods, which are currently practiced in some of the eastern African rangelands: Ex-situ conservation in form of gene bank or germplasm management, in vitro storage and field gene banks are commonly used. Another method is in situ conservation, which include protected areas and home gardens. However, such conservation efforts are affected by rapid population growth, poor government policies, sedentarization, breakdown of traditional institutions and resource utilization and rangeland degradation which serve as major causes of genetic erosion in rangelands of eastern Africa. The eastern African indigenous knowledge in management of rangeland biodiversity involves several techniques. Pastoralists have over many generation developed communal tenure and land use practices; and they also have their own herd management and water management practices which help them to successfully use the rangelands on sustainable basis. Such practices can and should play an important role in maintaining rangeland biodiversity, especially when blended with more modern scientific rangeland conservation and management practices. Improved scientific understanding of biodiversity, notably its role in ecosystem functioning, is a precondition for increased concern and thus action to conserve it.
Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, Rangelands, Genetic erosion, Conservation methods
|Evaluation of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach) Accessions for Agronomic Traits under Acidic Soil Conditions of Nejo Area, Ethiopia
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 30-35.
AbstractFull text pdf
The main objective of the study was to see the level of response of ten Napier grass accessions for their agronomic traits under acidic soil conditions of Nejo, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on major traits such as plant survival rate, tillering performance, plant height, forage dry matter, number of node per plant, internodes length per plant, leaf and stem fractions were analyzed using the general linear model procedures of SAS and least significance difference was used for mean comparisons. The analysis revealed that most measured agronomic traits varied significantly (P<0.05) among the tested Napier grass accessions. The plant height ranged from 186.7 to 275.8 cm with a mean of 216.6 cm. Generally, the check gave the highest mean plant height (275.8) followed by accession 16792 (238.0 cm) and 16791 (237.8 cm) while accession 15743 gave the lowest plant height. The highest number of tillers (12) was obtained from accession 16794 followed by accession check (11.5) while accession 16815 gave the lowest (7.9). The DM yield of analysis ranged from 1.4 to 7.4 t/ha with a mean of 3.9 t/ha. Generally, accession 16791 gave the highest mean DM yield followed by check and 15743. On the other hand, accessions 16815 gave the lowest DM yield. The number of nodes per plant ranged from 8.6 to 14.2 with a mean of 11.26. The highest number of nodes per plant was recorded for the check and 16791 while accession 16815 produced the lowest. The length of internodes per plant ranged from 6.7 to 13.1 cm with a mean of 10.5 cm. The highest mean internodes length per plant was recorded for accession 16783 followed by accession 16813 and 16815 while accession 15743 produced the lowest. The result showed that leaf fraction ranged from 44.9 to 60.3with a mean of 23.1%. Accessions 15743 produced the highest leaf fraction followed by 16792 and 16817. On the other hand, the lowest mean leaf fraction was recorded by accession 16792 and check. The result showed that stem fraction ranged from 39.7 to 55.1 with a mean of 50.7%. Accessions 16813 produced the highest stem fraction followed by 16815 and 16794. On the other hand, the lowest mean stem fraction was recorded by accession 16813. Generally, Napier grass accessions respond differently due to differential responses of the genotypes to various edaphic (esp. soil acidity), climatic and biotic factors.
Keywords: Acid soil, Agronomic traits, Dry matter yield, Napier grass accessions, Nejo area
|Crude Fibre Versus Roxazyme® G2G Inclusion Levels in Sub Optimum Energy Diets for Broiler Chickens: Performance and Carcass Characteristics at 8 Weeks of Age
Salami RI and Odunsi AA
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 36-42.
AbstractFull text pdf
There is frequent advocacy in support of feeding sub-optimum energy diet to broiler chickens in the tropics. However, 2600ME(Kcal/Kg) diet at all Crude Fibre (CF) levels without enzyme has been shown to be inadequate for optimum performance. Against the backdrop of the nutritional significance of CF and exogenous enzymes in poultry diets, this study therefore assessed the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed varying levels of CF and Roxazyme®G2G in 2600ME (Kcal/Kg) diets during 8-week single phase. Two hundred and seventy-day-old unsexed Obamarshal broiler chicks were allotted to nine treatments at 30 birds each with three replicates per treatment diet and fed for 28 days each for the starter and finisher phases with diets containing CF levels of 4, 8 and 12% at 2600ME (Kcal/Kg). Roxazyme®G2G was added to each CF level at 0, 200 and 400mg/kg diet to produce 9 treatment diets coded A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I in ascending order of CF and enzyme levels. Initial and final Body Weights, Average Daily Gain (ADG), Feed Intake, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Water Intake and feed cost per kg weight gain were evaluated. Carcass and organ evaluation were also carried out according to standard procedures. Response data were subjected to One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) according to 3 x 3 factorial arrangement and means separated by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at P<0.05. Broiler chickens on the diet containing optimal inclusion levels of CF (8%) and enzyme (200mg/kg diet) optimized (P<0.05) ADG (40g/b), FCR (2.41) and eviscerated weight (67%) at minimal feed cost of #169 per kg live weight gain as compared with their counterparts on diets with higher enzyme level or without enzyme. The results in growth performance and carcass characteristics also indicated lack of significant response to enzyme supplementation at 12% CF level. It is hereby recommended to raise broiler chickens on 8% CF diet at 2600ME (Kcal /Kg) containing 200mg/kg enzyme at lower feed cost.
Keywords: Broiler, Crude Fibre, Metabolisable Energy, Roxazyme® G2G, Performance, Carcass
|Determination of Corporate Social Responsibilities of Federal Tertiary Education Institutions in the Development of host Communities in Imo State, Nigeria
Chukwu AO, Emeruwa AM, Akande SN and KC Orgu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 43-46.
AbstractFull text pdf
The study focused on determination of Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of Federal Tertiary Educational Institutions in the development of host communities in Imo state. The idea of CSR is on the fact that institutions operating in an area owe it as a duty to contribute to the development of the area. The extent to which the expectations of host communities is met in relation to the development of the area is not yet known, hence the study. The specific objectives are to ascertain host community expectations from Federal Tertiary Education Institutions and identify various types of CSR the institutions provides their host community towards achieving community development. Purposively, the management staff of the institutions and executive members of community unions of host communities chosen formed the population. Thirty (30) management staff of the institutions and 30 members of executives of the community unions were also selected purposively. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire and analysed using percentage, mean statistic and t-test. The t-test is used to test the hypothesis. Result shows that: award of contract to their community Contractors and award of scholarship and bursary to indigent students of the host communities ranked 1st among the expectations of the communities from the institutions. Award of contracts to community contractors, Provision of education needs in form of tutorials and creation of wealth and jobs to deserving indigenes were accepted as CSR provided. Mean rating of type of CSR provided by management staff of the institutions and executive of community unions showed no statistical significance with the t-value of 0.518. The study concludes that management of the institutions should understand the expectations of host communities in terms of CSR to be provided them and act as such.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Federal Tertiary Education Institutions, Development, Host Community
|Determination of Technology Adoption Behaviour of Contact and Non-Contact Famers in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 47-50.
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The study was on technology adoption behaviour of Contact and non-contact farmers in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State. The paper examined contact and non-contact farmers adoption behaviour, ascertained the most adopted crop-based technologies, identified problems encountered by non-contact farmers in adopting improved technologies disseminated by contact famers, and estimated the relationship between non-contact farmers adoption of improved technologies and frequency of contact with famers. Fifty (50) contact and non-contact famers were selected through multi-stage random sampling technique. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire and analysed using percentage, mean statistic and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Results showed differences in adoption behaviour of both contact and non-contact famers. While the contact famers had the overall mean of 1.82 indicating positive adoption behaviour, the non-contact farmers had the overall mean of 1.34 indicating negative adoption behaviour. Results further showed that with the overall mean of 1.81, technologies were adjudged as accepted and adopted by farmers. Correlation coefficient of 0.104 between adoption by non-contact farmers and frequency of visit by contact famer was low showing that the degree of association between them was only 10% and not statistically significant. The study concluded that non-contact farmers be exposed adequately along with their contact farmer counterpart in matter concerning dissemination of improved technologies to ensure better adoption behaviour of all.
Keywords: Adoption Behaviour, Contact Farmer, Non-contact Farmers, Technology
|Management of Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), using Entomopathogens, Botanicals and Insecticide under Storage Conditions
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 51-56.
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Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the widely grown crops in Ethiopia and has been listed as one of the major commodities in the 15 years Agriculture research strategy Plan. The potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a world-wide pest of potato and other solanaceous vegetables. PTM is a serious pest of potato, under DLS condition, where the use of entomopathogens or botanicals is an environmentally sound than synthetic pesticides in IPM principles but is not practiced well rather using synthetic insecticides in the whole potato production system. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of entomopathogens, botanicals and insecticides for their control of PTM at Holeta under DLS conditions at Holetta Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia in 2016/17 cropping season. Potato varieties; ‘Belete’ were used with randomized complete block design by three replications. The following bio-pesticides were included Birbira seed (Miletia ferugenus) powder and solution, Pyrethrum flower (Chrysanthemum cineraraefolium) powder and solution; entomopathogens Metarizum anosipele and Beuberia basiana powder (@125g/ 25kg of tuber) and synthetic insecticide Ethiozinon (Diazinon 60% EC) and untreated control were evaluated against PTM natural infestation in locally constructed DLS store. All the treatments were found significantly superior to control (76.67% tuber infestation) but among the treatments, Berbera seed extract powder were most effective each with an average of 6% tuber infestation up to 4.5 months followed by Berbera seed extract solution (21.67%) and both Pyrethrum flower powder and solution responds equally; 22% and 23% respectively. Under different treatments, the numbers of infestation holes per tuber varied from 5 in Berbera seed extract powder to 26.9 in Metarhizium anisopliae fungus; all responded differently, as compared to control (26.9 holes per tuber). Under DLS, all botanicals and fungi treatments showed good protection to potato seed tubers from the pest up to the first two weeks.
Keywords: Metarizum anosipele, Beuberia basiana, bio-pesticides, Pyrethrum flower, Berbera seed extract, DLS, Phthorimaea operculella, bio-pesticides, potato tuber moth (PTM)
|Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Deficit Irrigation on Vegetative Growth of Winter Wheat
Abarchi Idrissa, Ado Salifou Hadiza, Dommo Timbely, Zhang Zhan-Yu, Guo Xiang-Ping and Wang Weimu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(1): 57-60.
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Deficit irrigation is an important limiting factor for crop growth and production in some regions of the world. It elicits several morphological responses in crop plants. Most of these responses are adaptive mechanisms to withstand water deficit or drought and to ensure both survival and reproduction. Application of nitrogen fertilizer has advantages like improving crop growth and grain yield. In view of this, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Agricultural Engineering department, Hohai University, Nanjing, China to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and drought on the growth of wheat. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three blocks and six treatments combinations. Treatments included two factors: factor a: deficit irrigation in three levels: no stress (a1), mild stress (a2) and serious stress (a3) and factor b: nitrogen fertilizer (control (b1), 240 kg/ha (b2)). Analysis of variance showed that the effect deficit irrigation and fertilizer was significant on total plant biomass.
Keywords: Deficit irrigation, Green house, Nanjing, Nitrogen fertilizer, Vegetative growth, Wheat