Volume 7, No. 2, 2018
|Economics of Maize Production in Oyi Local Government, Anambra State, Nigeria
Nkamigbo DC, Nwoye II, Makwudo EO and Gbughemobi BO
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 61-64.
AbstractFull text pdf
The study investigated the economics of maize production in Oyi local government Area of Anambra State. Purposive and simple random methods were used to select 60 respondents. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and personal interview, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis and cost benefit ratio. The specific objectives were to identify the socio-economic characteristics, determined the farming practices adopted by the farmers, evaluated the cost and return and constraints to maize production. Findings on socio-economic characteristics showed that the mean age of the respondents was 62.15, female dominance, majority married, mean family size of 5 persons, education attainment was 80%, mean (M) farm size was 0.8 hectare, mean farming experience was 11.0 years and 73.4% obtained their credit for take-off in maize production through personal savings. The findings also revealed that 73.3% of the framers acquired their land through inheritance and 75% adopted mono-cropping system. On profitability of the production, the enterprise proved profitable with farmers returning on the average 94 kobo for every 100 kobo invested in the business. The most perceived constraints were inadequate extension services, pests and diseases infestation, and lack of credit facilities among others.
Keywords: Maize, Production, Profitability, Determinants
|A Review of Coffee Diseases Research in Ethiopia
Demelash Teferi and Kifle Belachew
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 65-70.
AbstractFull text pdf
The average yield in the country is generally low (about 748 kg /ha) which is half of that achieved in Latin America. This is partly due to the limited use of improved technologies and best practices by most small-holder farmers, the widespread and prevalence of insect pests, diseases and coffee weeds. However, coffee suffers from a range of diseases including coffee berry disease (CBD), coffee wilt disease (CWD) and coffee leaf rust (CLR) caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, Gibberella xylarioides and Hemileia vastatrix, respectively. Bacterial blight of coffee (BBC) and coffee thread blight which is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv garcae van Hall and Corticium koleroga, respectively becomes an emerging constraint in Sidama and Gedeo Zone at Gera, Metu and Limmu Horizon coffee plantation. To date, about 31 released pure line CBD resistant cultivars are under production in coffee growing areas of the country, which is one of the ever success stories in coffee research and development that saved the Ethiopian coffee industry from catastrophe. Coffee wilt pathogen is known to be passive in its mode of penetration; strict practices of sanitation and disease prevention are unavoidable. Coffee leaf rust is widely distributed all over coffee growing regions of the country with varying intensities and coffee production systems. Detail characterization of pathogen and standard screening protocol is important for coffee leaf rust, coffee bacterial blight and coffee thread blight disease.
Keywords: Coffee, Coffee disease, Disease management
|Protective Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Induced by Heavy Metals
Hazbije Sahiti, Kemajl Bislimi, Arton Bajgora, Agim Rexhepi and Enis Dalo
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 71-75.
AbstractFull text pdf
The aim of the current research has been investigation of the antioxidant effect of vitamin C in heavy metals (Pb, Cr and Cd) intoxicated carp fish through biochemical and hematological parameters. For this purpose, the activity of enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total proteins (TP) on fish’s blood and activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in fish gills carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. The investigation has proved that exposure of fish to heavy metals mixture (Pb, Cd and Cr) induced significant increase in MDA content and increased activity of GST in their gills. A significant increase was also observed in enzymatic activities of ALP and AST but followed with a decrease of the level of total protein in blood. However, administration of vitamin C resulted in significant decrease of MDA level and GST activity in the gills of fish receiving mixture of heavy metals. Ascorbic acid supplementation effectively decreased activity of AST and ALP altered due to heavy metals in blood. The findings support that dietary vitamin C supplementation might be considered as effective antioxidant against toxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.
Keywords: Fish; Heavy metals; GST; MDA; Oxidative stress
|Genetic Diversity Analysis of Tepi Surroundings Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Germplasm Accessions using Quantitative Traits in Ethiopia
Abdulfeta Tariku Kifle, Hussein Mohammed Ali and Ashenafi Ayano
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 76-80.
AbstractFull text pdf
Ethiopia is the homeland and center of genetic diversity of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L). A field experiment on evaluation of 93 Tepi surroundings coffee germplasm accessions including 5 standard checks was conducted using Augmented Design of four blocks at Tepi National Spices Research Center during 2016 cropping seasons. Data on 22 morphological agronomic characters was obtained. The germplasm accessions differed significantly for the 10 of 22 morphological agronomic characters indicating the prevalence of variability among the coffee germplasm accessions studied. Furthermore, the first eight principal components explained 74 percent of the total variation prevalent within the germplasm accessions, out of which 21 percent was explained by the first principal component. Average linkage cluster analysis using Mahalanobis (D2) distance for the 22 characters grouped the 93 accessions in to 5 clusters. The number of accessions per cluster ranged from 1 in cluster V to 56 in cluster I. The clustering pattern of the accessions revealed the prevalence of genetic diversity in the Tepi surroundings (southwestern) coffee for the characters considered. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters I and V while the minimum was observed between clusters II and III. The study highlighted the possibility of using accessions of the distant clusters as potential candidates for the genetic improvement of southwestern Ethiopian coffee through crossing and selection.
Keywords: Coffea arabica, Cluster analysis, Genetic divergent, Principal component analysis
|Some Physiological Aspects of Drought Tolerance in Selected Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Genotypes as Evaluated by Early Stage Response to Soil Drying
Tesfaye Shimber Gessese
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 81-90.
AbstractFull text pdf
Seasonal water deficit stress is becoming one of the major threats of coffee production in Ethiopia. However, it is believed that there is an enormous genetic variability among the indigenous Arabica coffee materials for desirable traits, including drought tolerance. In line with this, in a previous study, 24 Arabica coffee genotypes have been evaluated based on visual assessment at early stages of growth and grouped in to three categories, as sensitive, moderately sensitive and relatively tolerant to drought. As a continuation of the previous preliminary evaluation, this experiment was, therefore, carried out on 12 genotypes (cultivar F-59, 75227, Geisha, 7487, 74110xF-59, 741, J-21, 741xF-59, 74158, 74110, 74112 and 8/85), which were selected from the three categories, to identify some physiological aspects associated with drought tolerance. The experiment was conducted using 14 months old seedlings of the genotypes subjected to two watering treatments (well-watered control and soil drying by withholding irrigation) for 15 days. It was carried out in randomized complete block design with three replications in a rain shelter at Jimma Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. The water-stressed plots were rewatered for nine days after the soil drying period to measure the rate of recovery in leaf relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs). Accumulation of inorganic solutes (K, Ca and Mg) in coffee leaves was also measured at the end of the soil drying period. Results of the experiment showed that there were significant differences among the cultivars for sensitivity to water deficit stress as expressed by rate of decline and recovery in leaf RWC and gs. The genotypes also showed significant differences in concentration of K, Ca and Mg in their leaves. Some of the cultivars, such as 7487, 74110, 8/85 and 74112, exhibited both higher rate of accumulation and percent increment in leaf K, Ca and Mg concentration as a mechanism of osmotic adjustment in response to soil drying. The rate of decline in leaf RWC during the stress period was lower and its recovery after rewatering was faster in these genotypes. Besides, gs of these genotypes also completely recovered to the control level just nine days after the commencement of rewatering. Therefore, it was concluded that some physiological parameters, such as changes in plant water status, gs and accumulation of inorganic solutes could be used to screen Arabica coffee genotypes for drought tolerance. However, these results need to be verified under stressful field conditions and supplemented with further studies on some morphological and biochemical mechanisms associated with drought tolerance.
Keywords: Inorganic solutes, Plant water status, Stomatal conductance
|A Review of Factors Affecting Food Security Situation of Ethiopia: From the Perspectives of FAD, Economic and Political Economy Theories
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 91-100.
AbstractFull text pdf
The objective of the study was to review the concept and theoretical outlook of food security, the food security situation in Ethiopia, and the major cause of food insecurity in Ethiopia. The assessment was based on intensive reading of both published and unpublished documents. Finally, the data were presented in narration form. The review indicates that Ethiopia is chronically and seasonally food insecure country. Nearly 33 million people are suffering from chronic undernourishment and food insecurity. Different studies indicated that the status, depth and severity of food insecurity in Ethiopia are dynamic. The problem is compounded by back ward agriculture, land degradation, drought, population pressure, poor infrastructure facility and low level of off-farm/non-farm activities. To ensure food security in Ethiopia, the development workers should create awareness for the community about family planning, soil conservation practice, technology adoption and rainwater harvesting to reduce the problem caused by drought and erratic rain fall. Agricultural and non-agricultural employment, livelihood adjustment and livelihood diversification should be enhanced.
Keywords: Food security, Food insecurity, Draught, Ethiopia
|The Factors Affecting Poultry Industry in Northern Province of Rwanda, A Case Study of Rulindo District, East Africa
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 101-105.
AbstractFull text pdf
The aim of this research was to analyze the factors affecting poultry industry in Rulindo district, Northern Province of Rwanda, characterization the poultry farmers in Rulindo district, identifying the type of chicken raised there and to identify the constraints faced by Rulindo district farmers in poultry production. Descriptive study design was used to collect a structured questionnaire to the poultry farmers where 60 poultry farmers were taken as sample representing other farmers in this study area. The data revealed in this study showed that few people were keeping exotic breeds (11.7%), 15% are those who mixed up local breeds and exotic breeds, for those who raised cross breed are found in the percentage of 23.3% among the respondents while the majority of farmer poultry who raised local breeds are the half of the respondents (50%). This was due to the reason that local breeds do not require much care, and they were thought to be easy to herd although they did not have high productivity. The data revealed in this study showed that the main type was the layer hen with the percentage of 85 of the respondents’ respondents, followed by the female starting from 1 to 8 weeks with the rank equal to 70% while the female grown from 8 to 20 weeks and cocks occupied the lower proportion of mean rank equivalent to 65% and 60% respectively. Critical constraints of the factors affecting poultry production in the study area were partially due to the higher cost of concentrate, unavailability of breed chickens and, lack of proper health care. It has been concluded that the chicken production systems in the study area is the intensive system based on the exotic breed of chickens and market follow a specific channel.
Keywords: Poultry Farmers, Poultry production, Poultry productivity, Chicken
|Performance and Blood Profiles of Feedlot Bunaji Bulls Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Shea Nut Cake
Wuanor AA, Abang PB, Agbo C and Haruna IY
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 106-111.
AbstractFull text pdf
This preliminary study was carried out to assess the effect of feeding diets containing varying levels of Shea nut cake (SNC) on the growth performance and blood profiles of feedlot Bunaji bulls. Six Bunaji bulls, aged two years and weighing averagely 142 Kg were allotted to three dietary treatments (T1, T2 and T3) in which Shea nut cake was included at 0.0, 5.0 and 10.0% respectively at the expense of maize offal in a Completely Randomized experimental Design. Other feed inputs used in formulating the diets included palm kernel cake, brewer dried grain, melon seed husk meal, bone ash and table salt. The experimental diets were fed to the bulls for 90 days at the rate of 3.0% body weight while elephant grass and drinking water were offered ad libitum. Growth performance indices measured were feed intake, water intake, daily body weight change and feed conversion ratio while haematological indices assessed were white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin, parked cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils and platelets. Results showed that, of the growth performance indices measured, only the average daily concentrate intake, average daily water intake and total body weight gain differed significantly (P<0.05) while the average daily forage intake, average daily total feed intake, average daily body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and final body weight did not differ significantly (P>0.05). In a similar vein, only the WBC differed significantly (P<0.05) while the other haematological parameters did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). It was concluded that dietary inclusion of SNC did not exhibit any deleterious effect on growth performance and haematological indices of the Bunaji bulls. It was recommended that Bunaji cattle farmers could include SNC at 5% in diets for feedlot fattening of Bunaji bulls.
Keywords: Performance; Haematological parameters; Bunaji bulls; Shea nut cake
|Reactions of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Germplasm to Gibberella xylarioides Heim & Saccas
Demelash Teferi, Girma Adugna and Diriba Muleta
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 112-116.
AbstractFull text pdf
In Ethiopia, coffee wilt disease (CWD) is increasingly important in all production systems. The current management methods, eradication of diseased trees, mulching, and protection by stem painting as preventive measures are not efficient. While searching for host resistance is most practical and effective approach for tracheomycosis control. To this end, 102 Arabica coffee germplasm collections conserved at Jimma, southwest Ethiopia, were tested for their reactions to CWD under greenhouse conditions. The screening trials were laid out in two sets in a RCBD with three replications. CWD resistant and susceptible checks were included for comparison. Stem nicking inoculation was employed with 2.1 × 106 conidia of Gibberella xylarioides isolate at cotyledon stage. Seedlings of 19 coffee accessions 279/71, 226/71, 259/71, 244/71, 120/71, 3/70, 16/70, 245/71, and 30/70 (batch I); and 27/77, 12/74, 26/77, B3/06, B2/06, 44/83, 48/83, B1/06, 11/77 and 13/74 (batch II) showed low death rate. These accessions expressed moderate to high levels of resistance to the disease compared to the standard check Catimor J-19, although most accessions were as susceptible as Geisha and SN-5. This large-scale testing trial indicate that there is great potential to develop CWD resistant cultivars in Ethiopian Arabica coffee germplasm, and through screening and testing activities should be carried out in order to select accessions with best performances.
Keywords: Coffee germplasm, Fusarium xylarioides, Seedling test, Tracheomycosis
|Variations of Cup Quality Traits Analysis among Some South Western Ethiopian Coffee Accessions
Abdulfeta Tariku, Hussein Mohammed Ali and Ashenafi Ayano
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2018, 7(2): 117-121.
AbstractFull text pdf
Coffee is the nucleus of the Ethiopian economy. Cup quality determines the relative price as well as the usefulness of a given quantity of coffee. Eighty eight accessions of Coffea arabica L and five standard checks were tested at Tepi National Spice Research Center during the 2016 growing season. The objectives of the study were to assess variation among these genotypes in order to identify and classify genotypes based on cup quality traits. The results showed that very high significant (P<0.01) variation among genotypes for flavor and overall quality, and also significance (P<0.05) for aromatic quality. Genotypes were evaluated using eight cup quality traits by professional coffee tasters at Jimma agricultural research center, Ethiopia. Cluster analysis based on cup quality traits grouped the accessions into four divergent clusters. Shannon-Weaver diversity indexes ranged from 0.31 to 0.7, astringency having the lowest and body cup quality the highest value respectively, indicating the presence of some diversity among genotypes for cup quality traits assessed. Genotypes did not cluster according to collection region. This indicated the presence of coffee genetic diversity for quality characteristics in each region. Among the tested genotypes, T04/11, T07/11, T27/11, T44/11and T62/11 had desirable cup quality. These genotypes could serve as sources of desirable genes for cup quality improvement in arabica coffee. Selection for better flavor would lead to overall cup quality improvement in arabica coffee. Generally, this study showed the presence of some variation for coffee quality attributes which is important in the effort exerted to increase the genetic base of winy flavored Arabic coffee varieties for future coffee breeding program.
Keywords: Coffea arabica, Cup quality, Overall quality, Cluster analysis, Shannon-Weaver index