Volume 8, No. 5, 2019

Cost Effectiveness of Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Fermented Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernel Composite Meal as a Replacement for Maize
Yerima Shettima Kolo and Hannatu Charles
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(5): 222-225.
Abstract
Abstract

A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate fermented mango kernel composite meal as a replace for maize in Japanese quails diet. One hundred and ninety five two weeks unsexed Japanese quails of about the same weight were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments comprising of 39 birds. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 13 quails per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). In each of the five diets, FMKCM was used to replace maize at 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% for treatments I, II, III, V, and VI respectively. Feed cost reduced with increased with increased supplementation of FMKCM. The cost of feed per gram weight gain reduced across treatments. More saving accrued at 10% inclusion levels, quails fed 0% FMKCM had least profit and RNI. Fermented mango (Mangifera indica) kernel composite meal could replace maize up to 25% in Japanese quails diets.

Keywords: Japanese quails, FMKCM, Maize, Cost effectiveness

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Effects of Fermented Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernel Composite Meal on the Haematological Parameters of Laying Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Yerima Shettima Kolo, Abang Favour Bette and Hannatu Charles
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(5): 226-230.
Abstract
Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of Fermented Mango Kernel Composite (FMKCM) on the Haematological parameters of laying Japanese quails. One hundred and ninety five Japanese quails were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (I –V) of 39 hens each. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 13 hens per replicate. In each of the five diets, FMKCM was used to replace maize at 0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% for i, ii, ii, iv and v, respectively. Haemoglobin, Red blood cell, White blood cell, Packed cell volume, Mean corpuscular volume, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, Platelet, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Basophils were determined at the 84th day (that is 12 weeks) and the result showed that all the parameters measured were within the normal reference ranges of healthy quails. It is therefore concluded that FMKCM could replace maize up to 25% without any deleterious effect on their haematology.

Keywords: Fermented mango kernel, Maize, Japanese quail, Haematological indices

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Seasonal Availability of Major Feed Resources, Constraints of Ruminant Production and their Coping Mechanisms in Different Agro ecologies of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Kibrom Gebremeskel, Mengistu Urge and Yayneshet Tesfay
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(5): 231-236.
Abstract
Abstract

The study was conducted to assess the seasonal availability of feed resources, major constraints of ruminant production and their copping mechanism in different agro ecologies. The study was undertaken using structured questionnaire and focus group discussions. Three districts were selected based on representativeness of agro-ecologies and a total of 270 respondents were interviewed to generate the data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used for data analysis. In the highland (95%) and midland (98%) involve in both crop and livestock production system. In highland crop residues (98.9%) were found the major feed source in dry season which is followed by leaf of indigenous browse species (95.6%), hay (90%) and crop aftermath (82.2%) whereas in wet season majority of the respondents (95.6%) use weeds as a major source of feed which is highly supported by tinned cereal crops. Similarly, in midland hay (100%) was found the major feed source during the dry season which is followed by crop residue (97.8%), leaf of indigenous browse species (91.1%) and crop after math (86.6%) while in wet season majority of the respondents (100%) use weeds followed by indigenous browse species. Cultivation of improved forage was not practiced in majority of the study area. Major livestock constraints were shortage of feed, shortage of water, drought, decrease in grazing land, lack of improved breed and animal healthcare problem. The coping mechanisms for these challenges were purchasing feed, cut and feeding foliage of browse species and destocking. Development of improved forages and efficient utilization of browse species that can be integrated with the dominant farming system needs attention.

Keywords: Agro ecology, Crop residue, Feed Resource, Ruminant, Season

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Hybrid Coffee Variety Verification Trial for Yield and Yield Components for Mid- and Low-Lands of Southwest Coffee Growing Areas
Ashenafi Ayano, Kalifa Nasiro, Tadese Benti and Nigusie Meknnen
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(5): 237-241.
Abstract
Abstract

Once the presence of heterosis in crosses among indigenous arabica coffee cultivars was noticed, the next step was to investigate as to how to maximize the observed level of heterosis and make use of the available enormous genetic potential. A total of 15 F1 hybrids were selected and advanced to verification based on their high yielding ability and resistance to diseases (CBD and CLR) at mid-to low-land South Western parts and planted at Melko and Tepi with the objectieve of developing high yielding, typical quality, hybrid coffee varieties for mid and low land coffee producing areas of South West Ethiopia.yield data, growth parameters, survival rate and quality data was taken and analyzed using SAS version 9.2 and mean was separated usind LSD at 5% level of significance. Based on the evaluation made there was significance difference between hybrids for parameters under consideration and three Crosses 7455 X 7530, F-59 X H13 &F-59*Dr1gave mean over-location and over-years yield of 20.9, 19.3 & 20.1 qt/ha clean coffee respectively. Their survival rate was also higher 93.8, 89.6 & 79.2 respectively. The mean Hetrosis of the three crosses 7455X7530, F-59XH-13 & F-59XDr1 were 27.6, 18.1-20.8 & 33.0 over hybrid check, and 53.1, 41.7-50.6 & 65.8 over pure line check/s respectively under their best performed coffee Arabica growing areas. These three hybrids showed better growth performances as indicated. These crosses have been evaluated, registered & officially released by variety release committee and named EIAR50/CH, Melko-Ibsitu & TepiHC5, respectively.

Keywords: Arabica Coffee, Hybrid coffee, Hetrosis

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Some Selected Animal Wastes and By-Products for Poultry Feed: Review
Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek and JC Okonkwo
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(5): 242-250.
Abstract
Abstract

This review was carried out to assess some selected animal wastes and by-products used as poultry feed and indicate the inclusion rate of them in poultry ration. The collected animal wastes and by-products from different sources can be processed by heating, sun drying, boiling etc. and included in poultry ration in varying proportions. Blood meal is one of the animal wastes and can be included up to 25% in poultry diets, meat and bone meal up to 10 % can replace soybean meal in chick, leather meal up to 25% can replace soybean oil meal in poultry feed, About 6% fat should be included in the ration if the egg production 70% and above. The performance of broilers was not found to be depressed when 10 to 15 % dried rumen contents were fed. Dried blood rumen content mixture can be included up to 60% starter phases and up 80% for finisher phases of growth to replace soybean meal. Poultry by-product meal from 7-10% can be used in poultry diets. About 8 to 16% are recommended for hatchery by-product meal in layer diets. Eggshell meal was high source of calcium, with no effect on DM intake or egg production being observed. Dried poultry and cow manure can be included up to 5% for broilers, up to 20% – 40% for layers without any adverse effect. Therefore, animal wastes can be included in poultry ration after appropriate processing to reduce feed cost and environmental pollution for maximum return.

Keywords: Animal by-products, Animal wastes, Egg shell meal, Poultry by-product meal

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Economic Analysis of Different Fungicides Rates for Asian Soybean Rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.) on Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merrill) Sub-Humid Tepid to Cool Mid High Land Agro-Ecology of Ethiopia
Mesfin Hailemariam, Abush Tesfaye and Kifle Belachew and Yechalew Sileshi
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(5): 251-256.
Abstract
Abstract

Asian soybean rust diseases are the most limiting factors in soybean production and productivity in Ethiopia, especially in the southwestern parts. This research was aim to assess the economic feasibility of fungicides application and rates on three soybean variety in Jimma and Metu districts, Southwestern Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Twelve treatment combinations and unsprayed control treatments were included in this study. Two released soybean varieties (Clarck 63k and AFGAT) and one pipe line soybean genotype SCS 1 were used for the experiment. And, three selected fungicides namely Luna sensation SC 500 with two active ingredients, Nativo SC 300 with two active ingredients and Opera Max with active ingredients epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin were used for the experiment. From the fungicide applications SCS-1+ Opera max 0.75 L/ha gives the highest grain yield (3.10 t/ha) and in turn the highest net profit and marginal rate of return with the values of 1229.71$ and 347.15% obtained respectively. In addition to, for the variety Clarck 63K, with the treatment combination of Clarck 63k+Opera max 0.75 L/ha gives the grain yield of, net profit and marginal rate of return 2.80t/ha, 1081.17$ and 309.36 respectively.

Keywords: Net income; Marginal rate of return; Acceptable minimum rate of return

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Study on the Wine Production Attributes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Sucrose Enriched Palm Wine and Non-Sucrose Enriched Palm Wine
Agwuna, Linus Chukwuma, Umeh, Sophina Ogonna and Egbuim, Timothy Chukwudiegwu
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(5): 257-262.
Abstract
Abstract

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a common yeast of economic importance in food and brewing industries. They are obtained commercially from foreign suppliers and are costly; their high cost renders the cost of the brewed products too high for consumers. In this study, wine production attributes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine enriched with sucrose and fresh palm wine not enriched with sucrose, were checked. The isolates (SCE for palm wine enriched with sucrose and SCN for palm wine not enriched with sucrose) were characterized based on morphology and sugar fermentation tests. The attributes important for wine production investigated include; ability to ferment simple sugars, resistance to different stress conditions, ethanol tolerance, growth at elevated temperatures, flocculation ability, viability and low or no hydrogen sulfide production. Results showed that none of the isolates fermented melibiose and raffinose but they all fermented glucose, maltose, fructose, sucrose and galactose. They survived at different stress conditions of high temperature and cell osmotic pressure in high concentrations of ethanol and sugar, but SCE showed more intense growth. The isolates tolerated 15% (v/v) ethanol with different growth rates; growth was more intensive for SCE and low for SCN. They grew well at the temperature range of 20oC to 37oC, but at 45oC, SCE showed low growth while SCN had no growth. They showed good flocculation ability of 97% and 82% for SCE and SCN, respectively. The results of the viability test showed percentage viability of 96.66% and 83.00% for SCE and SCN, respectively. There was no production of hydrogen sulfide gas for all the isolates. Statistical analysis showed that yeast strains isolated from palm wine enriched with sucrose had greater potential when compared to yeast strain isolated from palm wine not enriched with sucrose in wine production attributes (P<0·05).

Keywords: Palm wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wine, Wine production

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