Volume 9, No. 6, 2020
|Influence of Inter-row Spacing of Carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa) Variety under the Irrigated Condition on Seed Yield and quality in Arsi Zone, Ethiopia
Nimona Fufa, Fekadu Gebretensay Mengistu, Dasta Tsagaye, Demis Fikre, Gizaw Wegayehu and Awoke Ali
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 269-274.
AbstractFull text pdf
Development of recommendation on appropriate plant spacing is one of the important agronomic practices to increase the productivity of carrot. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to assess the response of carrot variety AU-18 to different inter- row spacing in 2018 and 2019 using irrigation. Three inter-rows spacing of 50, 75 and 100cm were studied keeping 50cm intra-row spacing constant to all treatments. The experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The results revealed that inter-row spacing showed significant effects (p<0.05) on most of measured parameters except days to 50% flowering, number of primary branches per plant, seed yield per primary umbel and seed yield per plant. Accordingly, the highest umbel size (diameter) 9.309cm, number of seed per umbel (2612.4), seed yield per plant (94.21g), seed yield per hectare (1574.1 kg) and 1000 seed weight 91.83g) was obtained at 75 cm inter-row spacing followed by 50 cm inter-row spacing. Seed yield was observed to decline with increased spacing beyond 75 cm inter-row spacing. Seed yield per plant significantly (r = 0.5206*) correlated with number of branches per plant, umbel diameter (r = 0.59268*), number of umbels per plant (r = 0.576*), number of seed per plant (r = 0.3278*) and with thousand seed weight (r = 0.6454*). Thus, based on the results of this experiment, the optimum inter-row spacing for growing carrot variety AU-18 for high seed yield and quality is 75cm x 50cm which corresponds to planting density of 26666 stecklings or plants per hectare (equivalent to 3 plants m-2) in the study area as well as similar agro-ecologies in the country.
Keywords: AUA-108, Inter-row spacing, Seed yield, stecklings, Umbel.
|Effect of Fermentation on the Chemical Composition of Mango Kernel Meal (Mangifera spp)
Yerima Shettima Kolo, Tivsoo David Akume and Sunny Attah
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 275-277.
AbstractFull text pdf
Mango kernels (Mangifera spp) were fermented in water for forty-eight hours (48 hour) at room temperature. The quality of the fermented mango kernel samples was accessed by determining the proximate composition as well as the anti-nutritional content. The result revealed that the crude protein content of fermented mango kernel meal increased markedly at forty-eight hours (48 hour) of fermentation. Crude fiber, ether extract, nitrogen free starch (carbohydrate) and Ash content decreased after 48 hours of fermentation. It was observed that anti-nutrients such as tannin, oxalates, saponin, alkaloid, phytate, trypsin inhibitor and cyanide decreased with forty-eight hours (48 hour) fermentation.
Keywords: Fermentation, Chemical composition, Mango kernel meal.
|Initial Seed Moisture Content, Storage Temperature and Storage Duration Influenced Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Seedling Performances
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 278-283.
AbstractFull text pdf
Coffee is one of the most important agricultural products in the international market and many countries are involved in its production, trade or consumption. Arabica coffee is self-pollinated and homozygous, they are normally propagated by seeds. Seeds have been considered intermediate storage behavior with varying results. It is highly desirable that seeds are stored safely to optimize coffee seedling production at the appropriate time and season with ideal climatic conditions for planting in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature, time of storage and initial seed moisture content on early seedling performances of coffee seeds and to determine the appropriate seed handling method. In this experiment, the influence of initial seed moisture content with four levels (12, 17, 22 & 27%) storage temperature (ST) with two levels (15oC & ambient), time of storage with six levels (sowing after 1,2,3,4,5 & 6 months) and on coffee seedling growth stages were studied in a split-split-plot factorial design. The data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using statistical analysis system version 9.2 software (SAS, 2009). Treatment means were separated using LSD at 0.05 probability level. The present findings of storage environment with cold temperature (15oC) accelerated seedling growth much better than did ambient temperature condition. All tested seedling growth stages were faster at initial time of storage. After third month of storage, seed quality drastically reduced especially under ambient storage condition. Seeds dried to 12% moisture content showed delay of germination and growth throughout the trial period. Seeds with 27% initial moisture content took shorter time to reach at different growth stages at initial storage time but when aged took much time. Storage temperature, time of storage and initial seed moisture contents showed highly significant main and interaction effects and seeds dried to intermediate moisture level (17 & 22%), stored under cold temperature and sown at early times resulted in enhanced seedling growth. Hence, the current study suggests drying coffee seeds to 17% to 22% moisture contents and store under relatively lower temperatures at about 15oC for not more than six months of storage. As the present finding was limited to single cultivar and specific environmental condition further investigation is significant.
Keywords: Arabica coffee, Seed Storage, Seedling growth stages.
|GGE Biplot Analysis of Genotype by Environment Interaction and Grain Yield Stability of Bread Wheat Genotypes in Oromia, Ethiopia
Berhanu Sime and Shimellis Tesfaye
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 284-290.
AbstractFull text pdf
GGE biplot is an effective method based on principal component analysis to fully explore mega-environments trials data. The study conducted was to identify the best performing, high yielding stable advanced bread wheat genotype for selection environments, the identification of mega-environments and analysis of the ideal genotype and environment by GGE biplot method. Twenty-five bread wheat genotypes were evaluated using Alpha Lattice design with three replications at six locations in Oromia, Ethiopa. The results of combined analysis of variance for grain yield of 25 bread wheat genotypes indicated that genotype, environment and GEI were highly significant (P<0.01). The factors explained showed bread wheat genotypes grain yield was affected by environment (82.44%), genotype (6.23%) and GEI (11.33%). GGE biplot was constructed by plotting the first two principal components, PC1 and PC2, derived from subjecting environment centred yield data to singular value decomposition. PC1 and PC2 accounted for 86.7% (68.84% and 17.86%) of the G + GE variation for grain yield of the genotypes evaluated at six environments. As a result, a genotype located closer to the “ideal genotype” is more desirable than the others located farther away. Hence, the GGE biplot genotype ETBW9089 as an ideal genotype, while genotypes BW174464, ETBW9102, ETBW9304 and BW174461 were desirable genotypes as they were closer to the ideal genotype. Conversely, genotypes ETBW9313, ETBW9284, BW174465 and variety WANE were the least desirable genotype as indicated by the GGE biplot. Based on yield performance advanced lines ETBW9089, ETBW9102 and BW174464 are recommended to be included in variety verification trials for further release.
Keywords: Adapted, Discriminating, GGE, Grain yield, Stable.
|Participatory Variety Selection of Improved Highland Sorghum on the Basis of Farmers Preference Traits in Eastern Part of Ethiopia
Temesgen Begna, Hailu Gichile, Workissa Yali, Zewdu Asrat, Abdulfeta Tariku
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 291-298.
AbstractFull text pdf
Participatory variety selection is the most important breeding program which enhanced adoption of suitable improved varieties in order to address the needs of a broader range of users and to enhance farmer skills in variety selection and seed production efforts. It plays significant role in collaboration between breeders, farmers, marketers, processors, consumers, and policy makers. It also allows farmers to take part in the development of new varieties more suitable to marginal environments and to organic farming agronomic practices. Several different improved sorghum varieties are released at different international and national research institutions in different times, however the technologies were not properly addressed the farmers based on participatory, client oriented and demand driven. Therefore, the experiment was conducted in Eastern part of Ethiopia of Oromia regional state to evaluate the performance of improved sorghum varieties and to identify farmers’ preference traits through continuous performance evaluation at different stages of the crop. Five sorghum varieties along with local check collected from study area were evaluated in randomized complete block design in 2019 main cropping season. Farmers’ evaluation was made at two different stages of the crop, namely at flowering and maturity using both direct-matrix and pair-wise ranking methods of selection scheme. Farmers’ set; grain yield, disease resistance, grain color and seed size as selection criteria to evaluate and identify their preferred varieties. The results of analysis of variance indicated the existence of highly significant differences among varieties for all traits measured except plant height at 5% probability level. The highest mean grain yield was obtained from the variety Dibaba (11325 Kgha-1) and Jiru (10200 Kgha-1) respectively. Grain yield had positive and highly significantly correlated with thousand seed weight (0.95**) and also positively and significantly correlated with days to 50% flowering (0.85*). Likewise, based on the overall farmer’s preference (from both pair-wise and direct matrix ranking evaluations), Dibaba and Jiru were ranked first and second and followed by Adelle, ETS2752 and Chiro respectively. Thus, the varieties Dibaba and Jiru were chosen for their performance in the field and from farmers’ evaluation perspective. Moreover, this study indicated participatory varietal selection is a viable method to gain greater insight into farmers’ perceptions, preferences, merits and shortcomings of sorghum varieties. Therefore, based on the results of this study, Dibaba and Jiru are recommended for multiplication and distribution to farmers through both formal and informal seed systems. Generally, the integration of plant breeders and farmer’s perception used to increase the adoption rate and design a good breeding program for future improvement.
Keywords: Participatory; Farmers preference; Selection; Farmers breeding; Integrated breeding; Improved varieties.
|Assessment of Wheat Fusarium Head Blight and Associated Fusarium Species in West Shewa, Ethiopia
Tesfaye Abdissa and Berhanu Bekele
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 299-304.
AbstractFull text pdf
Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the most food security crop in Ethiopia and produced in mid and highland areas of the country. Fusarium head blight (scab) which is incited by Fusarium species is among the biotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in wheat grain yield and quality in the country. However, in West Shewa zone of Ethiopia the distribution and intensity of the disease is not well studied. Therefore, the study was conducted during 2019 cropping season when wheat was at dough growth stage to determine the status and distribution of FHB in the zone. Eighty wheat fields planted to local and improved cultivars were assessed by following “W” fashion using (0.5*0.5m2) quadrats. The disease prevalence in the area was 88.75%. However, the disease incidence and percent of severity index varied significantly (p<0.05) across the districts. Generally, the mean disease incidence and percent of severity index were 43.7% and 76.3%, respectively. Four Fusarium species, viz. F. graminearum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and F. culmorum were isolated and identified from the infected wheat ear samples collected during field assessment. Hence the study concludes that wheat production in the area is severely threatened by FHB due epidemic occurrence of the disease. So, intensive and extensive surveillance should be carried out across wheat growing agro ecologies in the country. Farmers should also trained on identification, importance and management of the disease. Integrated disease management is needed as the frontline to reduce the disease problem.
Keywords: Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum, Wheat, Disease intensity, Ethiopia.
|Role of Heterosis in Crop Improvement
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 305-313.
AbstractFull text pdf
Heterosis is a phenomenon where hybrid progeny have superior performance compared to their parental inbred lines. The response of heterosis either positive or negative mainly depends on the breeding objectives and the type of the crops used. Heterosis leads to increase in yield, reproductive ability, adaptability, disease and insect resistance, general vigour and quality. It also manifests as an increase in vigor, size, fruitfulness, speed of development, resistance to climatic rigors of any kind manifested by cross-bred organisms as compared with corresponding in-breds, as the specific results of unlikeness in the constitution of the uniting parental gametes. Narrow genetic base is one of the most important limiting factors for yield improvement and is a bottleneck in any of the breeding programs. Information on genetic diversity and heterotic groups is very useful in inbred line development and help breeders to utilize their germplasm in a more efficient and consistent manner through exploitation of complementary lines for maximizing the outcomes of a hybrid breeding program. Success on development of breeding populations and hybrid varieties is dependent on the availability of genetically complementary parents and the magnitude of heritability of economic traits. Development of hybrid oriented heterotic populations and application of schemes for improving combining ability is an integral part of hybrid breeding in maize and other cross pollinated crops. Broadening the genetic base of heterotic pools is a key to ensure continued genetic gain in hybrid breeding. The selection of parents and breeding strategies for the successful hybrid production will be facilitated by heterotic grouping of parental lines and determination of combining abilities of them. The main role of heterosis breeding is to assign germplasm into heterotic groups and identify their heterotic pattern in different crops on the basis of experimental evidence supporting them and listing out various heterotic groups and heterotic patterns in different crops.
Keywords: Heterosis, Genetic diversity, Germplasm, Heterotic groups and heterotic patterns.
|Contribution to the Study of Aquatic Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera). Check-list of Gerromorpha of north eastern Algeria
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(6): 314-320.
AbstractFull text pdf
The present study investigates the species diversity patterns of semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in different locations in north eastern Algeria (eastern Numidia, Constantinois, Sétifois). A list of Gerromorphan bugs (Mesoveliidae, Hydrometridae, Veliidae, Gerridae) is given with notes on their habitats and distribution. A total of 4 families, 6 genera and 12 species are recorded from north eastern Algeria. Another article relating to the Nepomorpha of northeast Algeria, currently being drafted, will complete these results. Keys for the identification of the families and genera of the Algerian semi-aquatic bugs are provided.
Keywords: Aquatic insect, Checklist, Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha, Algeria.