Volume 10, No. 4, 2021

Perceived Effects of Flood on Livelihood Activities of Smallholder Crop Farmers in Southern-Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Agadaga BB, Bai EM, Igbo DT and Adesope MO
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 191-194.
Abstract
Abstract

This study determined the effect of flood on livelihood and adaptation measures of smallholder crop farmers in Southern-Ijaw local government area, Bayelsa state. Purposive sampling technique was used in selection of Southern Ijaw Local Government Area. A sample of 100 smallholder farmers was randomly selected from four communities. Data were collected using structured questionnaire, and were analyzed with descriptive statistics such as mean, while multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that 61% of smallholder farmers were female and 48% were within the age bracket of 37-56 years. The study identified livelihood activities of smallholder crop farmer; plantain (X=3.3); root and tuber (X= 3.3), civil service (X=3.0), sugar cane farming (X= 2.6), vegetable farming (X=2.6) and transportation (X=2.8). The effect of flood on smallholder livelihood were marketing (X=2.3); harvest and storage (X= 2.3), sugar cane farming (X=2.1), root and tuber crop production (X= 2.1), vegetable (X=2.1) and plantain farming (X=2.4). The multiple regression result showed significant relationship on the perceived effects of flood on livelihood activities of smallholder crop farmers at P<0.05 level of significance. The study concluded that flood affected livelihood activities of smallholder crop farmers. Hence, government and flood management agencies should be proactive and invest massively in flood mitigation methods such as building of dams, dredging of rivers, clearing of drainages and natural waterways in the state, especially flood prone areas. Early maturing crops should be made available for smallholder crop farmers for planting to avoid much wastage.

Keywords: Flood, Livelihood and Smallholder.

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Hybrid Performances and Line-by-Tester Analysis of Highland Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and Other Related Traits
Dufera Tulu, Demissew Abakemal, Zeleke Keimeso, Tefera Kumsa, Demewoz Negera, Worknesh Terefe, Legesse Wolde and Abenezer Abebe
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 195-201.
Abstract
Abstract

The current study was conducted to evaluate the performance of test-cross hybrids and to estimate the combining ability of highland maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield related traits. 48 test crosses together with two standard checks were evaluated using alpha lattice design with two replications at two high-altitude sub-humid agro-ecology representing trial sites (Ambo and Holeta) in Ethiopia during 2018 main cropping season. Combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among the two locations for all the studied traits except EH, indicating the presence of considerable variation among locations for genotype performance. The interaction between locations and genotypes, were significant for GY, DA, DS and EA. The significance of both GCA and SCA mean squares for some traits indicates the role of additive and non-additive gene action in the inheritance of the traits. The contribution of GCA variance for all the traits was greater than the contribution of SCA variance. L1, T3 and T4 had significant positive GCA effects and are considered as good combiners for grain yield. Likewise, L4, L8, L9, T2 and T3 were identified as parents good for short plant stature. On the other hand, the study identified two best cross combinations L9xT4 and L11xT4 that exceeded the standard checks in mean GY for further use in breeding and cultivar development process.

Keywords: GCA, Grain yield, Lines, SCA, Testers.

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Assessing Postharvest Diseases and Losses of Tomato in Selected Areas of Ethiopia
Negasa Fufa, Tekalign Zeleke and Tesfaye Abdisa
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 202-207.
Abstract
Abstract

The survey was conducted for two years from 2018 – 2019 cropping seasons, in five zones, east Wollega, west Shewa, south Tigray, north and south Wello. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software (Version 26.0) and means were compared for the significant difference. Descriptive statistics was also used for organizing and presenting the data of the identified fungus. Most of the farmers 70-80% picked fully or over ripped tomatoes with hands that was not stored for more than two or three days. The respondent farmers using different methods of transportation, 38% of them using carts, 10 – 12% Isuzu and 40 – 50% (n = 210) carry by themself to markets. It was observed that a loss of 13.22, 20.17, 17.22, 14.30 and 38.88% were recorded visually at harvest, market, storage, transportation, packaging and in field due to diseases. Five genera of fungus were identified from the surveyed tomato samples. The mean incidence of Alternaria species was high 56.36, 60.28, 40.00 and 52.00% in east Wollega, west Shewa, north and south Wello, respectively. The mean frequency of Alternaria and fusarium species were 40 and 51% in the samples collected from east Wollega and west Shewa. From this research it was concluded that the farmers not used appropriate harvesting time, favorable packaging materials, modern storage technology, attention was not given in all the supply chains for reducing post-harvest losses. Therefore, multidisciplinary works especially on the uses of modern storage technologies and marketing systems are required to reduce post-harvest losses of tomato and other fresh produce. Further work is encouraged to examine the harmful effects of insecticides and fungicides applied on the tomato fruits for human health.

Keywords: Disease, Frequency, Incidence, Solanum lycopersicum, Supply chains.

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Dynamics and Depths of Emergence of Croton hirtus Herit (Euphorbiaceae) Seedlings in the Central Western Côte d’Ivoire
Gué Arsène, Yapi Arnaud-Freddy, Diomandé Souleymane, Sylla Moussa and Ipou Ipou Joseph
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 208-211.
Abstract
Abstract

Croton hirtus is a major weed of food crops in the Central Western Côte d’Ivoire. The present research aimed to study its seedlings emergence dynamics and depth in order to conceive effective management strategies and increase food production in Central Western Côte d’Ivoire. To carry out the investigations on the emergence dynamics of Croton hirtus seedlings, 12 quadrats distributed along three (3) transects were installed on plots previously occupied by maize cultivation and heavily infested by Croton hirtus in 2012 and 2013 and observations were made on a weekly basis. For the emergence depth of Croton hirtus seedlings, four (4) repetitions of 100 seeds of the species were sown at depths of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm from the soil surface in nursery bags (dimensions: 9.5 cm in diameter and 25 cm deep). Four (4) cohorts of Croton hirtus were observed during each of the two years of investigation. In the absence of drought, the highest emergence densities of seedlings of the studied species were observed at the start of the growing seasons. The high emergence rates of Croton hirtus seedlings were noted at 2.5 cm from the soil surface and the lowest at 10 cm. This study suggests that special attention should be paid to cohorts of Croton hirtus that emerge early in the growing seasons. In addition, the adoption of deep plowing (more than 10 cm from the soil surface) could reduce the emergence of Croton hirtus seedlings.

Keywords: Food crops, Weeds, Croton hirtus, Seedling emergence dynamics, Seedling emergence depth, Central Western Côte d’Ivoire.

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