Volume 10, No. 4, 2021
|Perceived Effects of Flood on Livelihood Activities of Smallholder Crop Farmers in Southern-Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Agadaga BB, Bai EM, Igbo DT and Adesope MO
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 191-194.
AbstractFull text pdf
This study determined the effect of flood on livelihood and adaptation measures of smallholder crop farmers in Southern-Ijaw local government area, Bayelsa state. Purposive sampling technique was used in selection of Southern Ijaw Local Government Area. A sample of 100 smallholder farmers was randomly selected from four communities. Data were collected using structured questionnaire, and were analyzed with descriptive statistics such as mean, while multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis. The result showed that 61% of smallholder farmers were female and 48% were within the age bracket of 37-56 years. The study identified livelihood activities of smallholder crop farmer; plantain (X=3.3); root and tuber (X= 3.3), civil service (X=3.0), sugar cane farming (X= 2.6), vegetable farming (X=2.6) and transportation (X=2.8). The effect of flood on smallholder livelihood were marketing (X=2.3); harvest and storage (X= 2.3), sugar cane farming (X=2.1), root and tuber crop production (X= 2.1), vegetable (X=2.1) and plantain farming (X=2.4). The multiple regression result showed significant relationship on the perceived effects of flood on livelihood activities of smallholder crop farmers at P<0.05 level of significance. The study concluded that flood affected livelihood activities of smallholder crop farmers. Hence, government and flood management agencies should be proactive and invest massively in flood mitigation methods such as building of dams, dredging of rivers, clearing of drainages and natural waterways in the state, especially flood prone areas. Early maturing crops should be made available for smallholder crop farmers for planting to avoid much wastage.
Keywords: Flood, Livelihood and Smallholder.
|Hybrid Performances and Line-by-Tester Analysis of Highland Maize Inbred Lines for Grain Yield and Other Related Traits
Dufera Tulu, Demissew Abakemal, Zeleke Keimeso, Tefera Kumsa, Demewoz Negera, Worknesh Terefe, Legesse Wolde and Abenezer Abebe
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 195-201.
AbstractFull text pdf
The current study was conducted to evaluate the performance of test-cross hybrids and to estimate the combining ability of highland maize inbred lines for grain yield and yield related traits. 48 test crosses together with two standard checks were evaluated using alpha lattice design with two replications at two high-altitude sub-humid agro-ecology representing trial sites (Ambo and Holeta) in Ethiopia during 2018 main cropping season. Combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among the two locations for all the studied traits except EH, indicating the presence of considerable variation among locations for genotype performance. The interaction between locations and genotypes, were significant for GY, DA, DS and EA. The significance of both GCA and SCA mean squares for some traits indicates the role of additive and non-additive gene action in the inheritance of the traits. The contribution of GCA variance for all the traits was greater than the contribution of SCA variance. L1, T3 and T4 had significant positive GCA effects and are considered as good combiners for grain yield. Likewise, L4, L8, L9, T2 and T3 were identified as parents good for short plant stature. On the other hand, the study identified two best cross combinations L9xT4 and L11xT4 that exceeded the standard checks in mean GY for further use in breeding and cultivar development process.
Keywords: GCA, Grain yield, Lines, SCA, Testers.
|Assessing Postharvest Diseases and Losses of Tomato in Selected Areas of Ethiopia
Negasa Fufa, Tekalign Zeleke and Tesfaye Abdisa
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 202-207.
AbstractFull text pdf
The survey was conducted for two years from 2018 – 2019 cropping seasons, in five zones, east Wollega, west Shewa, south Tigray, north and south Wello. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software (Version 26.0) and means were compared for the significant difference. Descriptive statistics was also used for organizing and presenting the data of the identified fungus. Most of the farmers 70-80% picked fully or over ripped tomatoes with hands that was not stored for more than two or three days. The respondent farmers using different methods of transportation, 38% of them using carts, 10 – 12% Isuzu and 40 – 50% (n = 210) carry by themself to markets. It was observed that a loss of 13.22, 20.17, 17.22, 14.30 and 38.88% were recorded visually at harvest, market, storage, transportation, packaging and in field due to diseases. Five genera of fungus were identified from the surveyed tomato samples. The mean incidence of Alternaria species was high 56.36, 60.28, 40.00 and 52.00% in east Wollega, west Shewa, north and south Wello, respectively. The mean frequency of Alternaria and fusarium species were 40 and 51% in the samples collected from east Wollega and west Shewa. From this research it was concluded that the farmers not used appropriate harvesting time, favorable packaging materials, modern storage technology, attention was not given in all the supply chains for reducing post-harvest losses. Therefore, multidisciplinary works especially on the uses of modern storage technologies and marketing systems are required to reduce post-harvest losses of tomato and other fresh produce. Further work is encouraged to examine the harmful effects of insecticides and fungicides applied on the tomato fruits for human health.
Keywords: Disease, Frequency, Incidence, Solanum lycopersicum, Supply chains.
|Dynamics and Depths of Emergence of Croton hirtus Herit (Euphorbiaceae) Seedlings in the Central Western Côte d’Ivoire
Gué Arsène, Yapi Arnaud-Freddy, Diomandé Souleymane, Sylla Moussa and Ipou Ipou Joseph
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 208-211.
AbstractFull text pdf
Croton hirtus is a major weed of food crops in the Central Western Côte d’Ivoire. The present research aimed to study its seedlings emergence dynamics and depth in order to conceive effective management strategies and increase food production in Central Western Côte d’Ivoire. To carry out the investigations on the emergence dynamics of Croton hirtus seedlings, 12 quadrats distributed along three (3) transects were installed on plots previously occupied by maize cultivation and heavily infested by Croton hirtus in 2012 and 2013 and observations were made on a weekly basis. For the emergence depth of Croton hirtus seedlings, four (4) repetitions of 100 seeds of the species were sown at depths of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 cm from the soil surface in nursery bags (dimensions: 9.5 cm in diameter and 25 cm deep). Four (4) cohorts of Croton hirtus were observed during each of the two years of investigation. In the absence of drought, the highest emergence densities of seedlings of the studied species were observed at the start of the growing seasons. The high emergence rates of Croton hirtus seedlings were noted at 2.5 cm from the soil surface and the lowest at 10 cm. This study suggests that special attention should be paid to cohorts of Croton hirtus that emerge early in the growing seasons. In addition, the adoption of deep plowing (more than 10 cm from the soil surface) could reduce the emergence of Croton hirtus seedlings.
Keywords: Food crops, Weeds, Croton hirtus, Seedling emergence dynamics, Seedling emergence depth, Central Western Côte d’Ivoire.
|Effectiveness of Biostimulant Banzaï in Productivity of Cocoa in Côte D’ivoire
Hermann-Désiré Lallie, Mohamed Doumbouya and Franck Zokou Oro
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 212-218.
AbstractFull text pdf
Côte d’Ivoire, West African country, is the world’s largest producer of cocoa. However, cocoa diseases and pests are prevalent in all regions and can cause production losses of up to 60%. In order to minimize production losses, several varieties of natural products have been developed. The objective of this study is to find out the effectiveness of the Banzaï biostimulant on cocoa productivity. Carried out in the department of Toumodi precisely in the locality of Kouaméfla, this study took place according to two devices. A device comprising a cocoa field that has received a fertilizer input during the last three years (DAE) and another which has not received any fertilizer input during the last three years (DSE). Data collection and analysis focused on the number of cherries and pods produced by treatment and by device. The Kruskal-Walli’s test made it possible to compare the treatments between them and to classify them according to their effectiveness in productivity. The results show that the plots that have undergone the application of Banzaï have produced significantly more cherries and pods than the control plots without application of the biostimulant. Indeed, compared to controls, the rate of progression of cherries is between 19 to 52% in plots without precedent fertilizer and between 5 to 65% in plots with previous fertilizer. Pod production also has a growth rate of between 6 to 65% in plots without unprecedented fertilizer and between 9 to 64% in plots with previous fertilizer. In conclusion, the banzaï biostimulant has a positive effect on the yield in the cocoa culture. It could therefore strongly compensate for yield losses due to pests and diseases of the cocoa tree in Côte d’Ivoire.
Keywords: Banzaï, Biostimulant, Cocoa, Productivity, Côte d’Ivoire.
|Constant Pesticide Residue Monitoring in Soil and Vegetables Grown under Pesticide in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria Required to Allay Consumers Concern on Food Safety
Igboji and Paul Ola
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 219-223.
AbstractFull text pdf
The residue of pesticide in soil and vegetables grown under pesticide was evaluated at the teaching and research farm, Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments replicated four times. The treatments were 0; 0.5; 1 and 1.5 l ha-1 of DD-Force pesticide applied fortnightly till harvest. The test vegetable crops were Amaranth, Garden Egg, and Okra The data generated was subjected to standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The results showed that Amaranth, Garden Egg and Okra gave chloride residue of 0.547; 0.624 and 0.585 mg kg-1 respectively. The untreated plots recorded 0.325; 0.331 and 0.345 mg kg-1 respectively. Similarly, the phosphate level in Amaranth, Garden Egg and Okra were 1.211; 1.380 and 1.350 mg kg-1; while untreated plots gave 0.588; 0.835 and 0.600 mg kg-1 respectively. The chloride and phosphate residue passed the Maximum Residue Limit (MLR) in the vegetable crops, while the soil samples failed the phosphate MLR, but passed the chloride MLR. It was recommended that more vegetables, other crops treated and not treated with the current pesticide and other types of pesticides be investigated to ascertain the tolerable levels of these residues in our food and soil.
Keywords: Chloride residue, Tolerable level, Pesticide, MLR.
|Awareness and Perception of Resource-Poor Farmers on the Effects of Land Degradation in Agricultural Activities in Imo-State, Nigeria
Uneze Chijioke U and Onuoha Chigozie C
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 224-228.
AbstractFull text pdf
Land degradation is one of the most serious environmental problems currently affecting agricultural productivity in developing countries of the tropics including Nigeria. The study was therefore carried out to ascertain the level of awareness and perception of resource-poor farmers on the effects of land degradation in agricultural activities in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the use of structured questionnaire from 350 randomly selected resource-poor crop farmers. Descriptive statistical tools involving percentages, means and frequency distribution were used to analyze the data. The result showed that almost all the farmers (94%) were aware of land degradation problem in the study area and they accepted that heavy rainfall/erosion (3.41), topography/shape of the land (3.23), deforestation (3.27) sand excavation (3.21) etc were causes of land degradation in the area. The perceived major effects of land degradation on agricultural production in the area were reduction in farm yields (3.80), increase in poverty level (3.20), reduction in soil fertility (3.85), decrease in income of farmers (3.10), food insecurity (3.71), decreasing available farmland for cultivation (3.90) among others. The study recommended soil restoration approaches to enhance the productive and protective functions of the land such as use of organic manure (3.79), avoidance of bush burning (2.98), crop rotation (3.20) .Also, since the level of awareness of land degradation is very high in the study area and farmers are willing to adopt it, government should mount environmental education campaigns, particularly on land management for the farmers through extension workers in order to heighten the level of its adoption among these farmers.
Keywords: Land Degradation; Awareness; Perception; Resource-Poor Farmers
|Influence of Supplemental Levels of Turmeric Meal (Curcuma Longa) on the Growth Performance and Serum Biochemistry Indices of Finisher Broiler Birds (A Case Study in Ishiagu, Ivo, LGA of Ebonyi state, Nigeria)
Agu CI, Uzoma C, Okelola OE, Olabode AD and Ebiaku V
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 229-232.
AbstractFull text pdf
A feeding trial was conducted to assess the growth performance and serum biochemistry indices of finisher broiler birds fed diet supplemented with processed turmeric, with inclusion levels of 0%, 0.5%, 1.00% and 1.50% in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Two hundred and forty (240), four weeks unsexed “Sayed” broiler birds were randomly divided into four treatments which was replicated thrice with twenty birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were given ad-libitum. All dietary treatments had processed turmeric meal except the control (treatment 1). Proximate analysis of the test ingredient (turmeric) and the experimental diets were carried out. Data were obtained for growth performance and serum biochemistry indices. Results obtained for growth performance revealed that final body weight, weight gain, average daily weight gain and average daily feed intake were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. While the value for feed conversion ratio did not differ (P>0.05) across the treatment group. Superior value of 2363.10g for final body weight was obtained for birds in treatment 2, while the least value of 2146.60g was obtained in treatment 4. Average daily feed intake value of 137.94g was highest for birds in treatment 3, while the lowest was obtained for birds in treatment 4. Feed conversion ratio was best in treatment 2 with value of 1.97. Serum biochemical indices had values which were significantly (P<0.05) influenced across the treatment group. It can be concluded from the results obtained that finisher broiler birds can accommodate processed turmeric meal upto the level of 1.50% without any detrimental effect on the performance or blood profile. Thus, processed turmeric meal at 0.5% inclusion level proved to be superior in the present study.
Keywords: Turmeric meal, Growth performance, Haematology, Serum biochemistry and Broiler birds.
|Comparative Study on Major and Trace Mineral Content of Edible and Eggshell Powders from Ethiopian Local and Exotic Breed Chicken Eggs
Esayas Abrha and Zerihun Asefa
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 233-237.
AbstractFull text pdf
In this study, the effect on the mineral content of eggs from local and exotic breed hens was investigated. For this study, random samples were collected from the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Debrezeit Agricultural Research Center, and Fresh Corner Poultry Farming Debrezeite, Ethiopia for the exotic and local breed eggs respectively. Eggshells and edible portion of the egg were analyzed for Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K), Phosphors (P), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), and Copper (Cu) contents. The Phosphors and Zinc contents of the edible egg portion were higher in the local breed eggs than in exotic breed eggs. Calcium and Magnesium content of the eggshell was higher in local breed eggs while Zn content showed a marked decrease. As far as Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium Phosphors, and Copper values were concerned, these did not differ between the eggs from local and exotic breed types. The present finding provides sizeable differences in mineral content between the eggs from the local and exotic breed hens. The results afford a point of departure measurements of major and trace mineral contents of eggs and suggest quantifiable differences amid eggs from hens in different husbandry systems, and hens breed types. The physiological significance of those differences is discussed. But future studies should elucidate differences observed by crossbreed types, diet effect, and husbandry system. Drying eggs can be a workable food systems intervention that can mend the wellbeing and eminence of diets in low-income countries like Ethiopia.
Keywords: Egg, Hen, Mineral Content, Local breed, Exotic breed, Food System, Low-income.
|Genetic Diversity Based on Cluster and Principal Component Analyses for Quantitative Traits in Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) Genotypes at Arsi Highlands of Ethiopia
Temesgen Abo Ertiro
Int J Agri Biosci, 2021, 10(4): 238-243.
AbstractFull text pdf
In Ethiopia, field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the major source of protein for resource poor farmers. The development of varieties for yield and disease resistance is one of the important activities to support farmers and improve the productivity of the crop. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity by cluster and principal component (PCA) analyses of field pea genotypes. Forty-nine field pea genotypes were evaluated in simple lattice design at Bekoji and Asasa in 2019 cropping season. The first three principal component axis (PCA), PCA1, PCA2 and PCA3 accounted 38.12, 28.3 and 14.1%, respectively, and a total of 80.5% of the total variation. The cluster analysis grouped the 49 genotypes into six clusters. Cluster I and Cluster II consisted of each 13 genotypes and Cluster III consisted of 10 genotypes and the three clusters consisted of 73.47% of the total genotypes. The inter-cluster distances between Cluster VI and other five clusters were high of which the inter-cluster distance between Cluster VI and Cluster I Cluster I, Cluster VI and Cluster II was the inter-cluster distances between Cluster VI and Cluster and Cluster VI and Cluster II were 5567 and 5055, respectively, which was higher than other inter-cluster distances. Cluster I and II had higher intra-cluster distance of 580 and 533, respectively.
Keywords: Genetic diversity, Cluster analyses, Principal component, Eigen value, (Pisum sativum).