Volume 11, No. 4, 2022

Vine length determines the propagation strategy of Japanese yam (Dioscorea japonica) in tea gardens
Hidehiro Inagaki and Kasumi Ishiwata
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 208-211.
Abstract
Abstract

Dioscorea japonica (Japanese yam) is among the most serious weeds in tea gardens in Japan. Currently, tea farmers control Japanese yam vines by pulling them out from the canopy of tea plants or harvesting them above the canopy of tea trees. Japanese yam propagates through seeds and vegetative propagules. This study revealed that a single vine of Japanese yam does not produce both propagules and seeds and that whether propagules or flowers are produced is determined by the length of the vine. Specifically, shorter vines produce propagules, whereas longer vines produce flowers. Furthermore, we also observed no relationship between vine length and the number of propagules. Therefore, shortening the vine does not suppress propagule production, and a certain number of propagules may be produced even when the vine is short. Thus, careless cutting of vines risks increasing the number of propagules that will be the source of the subsequent year’s outbreak.

Keywords: Japanese Yam (Dioscorea Japonica), Vine Weed, Tea Garden, Propagule.

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Morphological Standard Based Genetic Diversity Among Maize (Zea mays L.) Accessions Indigenous to Pakistan
Tayyaba Mahmood, Saira Ghafoor, Muhammad Shahid, Bilal Ahmad, Naeem Tahir, Muhammad Abdullah and Muhammad Aslam
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 212-221.
Abstract
Abstract

The present study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity among maize accessions indigenous to Pakistan. The research was directed in the field area of plant breeding and genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The characters that are studied were Days to 50% tasseling, Days to 50% silking, Anthesis silking interval, Plant height (cm), Ear height (cm), Cob length (cm), Cob diameter (mm), No of grains per cob, 100-grain weight (g), Cob yield per plant (g), Grain yield per plant (g). At the maturity, stage data were collected for all the traits. Analysis of variance revealed that all the genotypes under study were highly significant for all the traits. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first four principal component analysis displayed eigenvalues with >1 and imparted 83.44% share to total variability. According to scatter plot genotypes UAF-PB-805, UAF-PB-378, UAF-PB-794, UAF-PB-364, and UAF-PB-871 were genetically diverse and should be considered for selection program. Dendrogram classified twenty genotypes into nine clusters based on their similarity. Cluster 9 had maximum intra-cluster distance depicting more variability as compared to other clusters. The genotypes in these clusters had high variability for study attributes. These results showed that the inbred lines having widely divergent clusters can be utilized in the hybrid breeding program.

Keywords: Maize, Genetic diversity, PCA, Cluster, Variability.

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Seed Yield Stability of Andean Sugar Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes in Ethiopia
Zeleke Ashango and Berhanu Amsalu
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 222-230.
Abstract
Abstract

In Ethiopia, Andean sugar beans are low seed yielding and unstable in productivity. Therefore, 16 advanced Andean sugar bean genotypes were evaluated for seed yield performance using 4×4 triple lattice design at nine locations in the 2013 and 2014 Meher cropping seasons to decide the stability of genotypes over environments. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and Genotype plus Genotype x Environment (GE) interaction (GGE) models were used to analyze the data. Mean seed yield performance of genotypes ranged from 1261.28 – 2095.30 kg ha-1. DAB 37, DAB 175, DAB 178, DAB 179, DAB 180, DAB 182, SARBYT-15, KG-11-48, and Cranscope were high seed yielding genotypes whereas genotypes viz., DAB 177, DAB 181, DAB 137, DAB 197, DAB 214, DAB 196, and F8 Drought line-37 were low seed yielding genotypes. All sources of variations viz., genotype (G), environment (E), and genotype x environment interaction (GEI) effects were highly significant (p < 0.01). They represented 9.97%, 67.88% and 22.15% variations in the treatment, respectively. As the GEI effect was highly significant, it is necessary to consider mean seed yield performance and stability together when selecting high seed yielding genotypes. PC1 and PC2 were highly significant (p < 0.01) and together accounted for nearly 70% variations in the GEI. AMMI1, GGE scatter, GGE comparison, and GGE ranking biplots identified DAB 177 as stable high yielding genotypes across environments. However, stable high seed yielding genotypes identification of GGE comparison biplot was superior to others. Environment focusing scaled vector view of GGE biplot revealed repeatability of GEI pattern over years. Thus, SARBYT-15 was selected as ideal genotype for mega-environment consisting of Alem Tena, Melkasa, Areka, and Haramaya. DAB 179 was selected for Jimma, Assossa, Miesso, and Sirinka. DAB 181 was selected for Arsinegelle. As a result, both widely and specifically adapted Andean sugar bean genotypes were recommended for verification and release for their adaptation agroecologies of Ethiopia.

Keywords: Yield stability, Sugar bean, GGE biplot, AMMI, Specific adaptability, Mega-environment.

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Applications of Crispr/Cas System in Plants
Iqra Rehman, Fiza Shaukat, Zunaira Anwar, Aqsa Ijaz and Rosheen Nadeem
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 231-237.
Abstract
Abstract

Every year, the world’s population grows, and to sustain this enormous population, food consumption must likewise massively double. However, because of unpredictable environmental fluctuations, plants are unable to produce the necessary amount of food, and several variables have negatively impacted their growth. Abiotic stresses like drought and salinity stress have already caused too much destruction in crop yield and are expected to decrease the yield in coming years. Also, biotic factors cause a severe threat to plant production. Conventional strategies are not much effective in controlling these disasters in plants. Biotechnological innovations have much potential to modify the tolerance mechanism in plants or engineer another process to make tolerant varieties. CRISPR/Cas technology has emerged as a promising single or multiple-site-directed mutagenesis tool. The CRISPR Cas technique alters the key genes that code for the enzymes that support metabolic pathways. The end goal is to raise fruit quality. It has advantages compared to conventional random mutagenesis methods due to its high efficacy, precision, and low risks of off-target activities. In the present study, CRISPR/Cas technology potential has been described as modifying plant genomes for high yields under various biotic/abiotic stresses.

Keywords: Abiotic Stresses, Crispr/Cas9 System, Food Security.

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Alternative Therapeutic Strategies for Histomonosis: A Review
Shahid Ahmad, Muhammad Rizwan and Zohaib Saeed
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 238-245.
Abstract
Abstract

Histomonosis is a protozoan disease of poultry that can cause severe mortalities in turkeys and production losses in the chicken. It is a fastidious disease with pathological lesions in the liver and ceca of infected birds. The disease has been known for more than 100 years when in vitro and in vivo experiments started to understand histomonosis, causative agent and its treatment. The traditional antiprotozoal medicines are being used for control, but public health concerns and resistance are limiting their use. Herbal products, nutraceuticals, vaccines and managemental measures are among the alternatives being investigated. Herbal products with antihistomonal activities also have been launched with limited advantages, feed additives are also showing many beneficial effects have been mentioned. The vaccines are also being investigated which can provide protective immunity in the near future. All of possible treatments their effects and limitations along with preventions have been mentioned in this article. There is a need to work on these substances tirelessly to manage the problem of histomonosis in Poultry.

Keywords: Blackhead, Herbal, Vaccines, Poultry, Turkey, Potent; Histomonosis.

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Sustainable Water Use in Agriculture: A Review of Worldwide Research
Waqar Ahmed, Usama Safdar, Asad Ali, Kamran Haider, Naeem Tahir, Sheeza Sajid, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Nouman Khalid and Muhammad Tayyab Sattar
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 246-250.
Abstract
Abstract

Water is widely considered as the most important resource for long-term agricultural development. Irrigated land will be added to as residential and industrial demand increases and agricultural freshwater supplies will be transferred to do so. Furthermore, crops consume less than 66% of irrigation water, which is a very low efficiency. Arid-region agriculture prioritizes irrigation water conservation. Many efforts have been made over time to enact policies aimed at improving water efficiency in response to water scarcity and climate change, on the assumption that better management may achieve more with less water. Increased water allocation and greater irrigation water efficiency are typical components of improved management. In comparison to the latter, the former is mostly determined by irrigation technique, environmental conditions, and water application schedule. Sustainable water management in agriculture includes soil management, irrigation, fertilizer application, pest and disease control, and environmental preservation. Water resources for agriculture are limited due to socioeconomic demands and climate change. Rural community social behavior, economic constraints, and the institutional and legal context all have an impact on the adoption of sustainable water management in the Mediterranean. Depending on these criteria, certain solutions may be more likely to be implemented. Changes in irrigation application, soil and plant practices, water price, reusing treated wastewater, farmer participation in water management, and capacity building are all approaches to achieve sustainable water management in Southern European agriculture.

Keywords: Efficient irrigation, Irrigation system, Sustainability.

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Effect of compost and association (Solanum + Amaranth) on pests and productivity of Solanum macrocarpon
Claude Ahouangninou, Ginette Azandeme Hounmalon, Martine Zandjanakou-Tachin, Armel Mensah, Razaki Osse, Jaures Tanmakpi, Dieudonné Ntehoué, Toussaint Lougbégnon, Marie-Paule Kestemont, Patrick Edorh and Placide Clédjo
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 251-255.
Abstract
Abstract

Rapid population growth has led to an increase in demand for agricultural products, particularly vegetables. There is a need to produce ample quantity of vegetables to meet this demand. Among the vegetable crops, gboma (Solanum macrocarpon) is the most consumed leafy vegetable in Benin, mainly for its leaves. This study focuses on the effect of compost and the combination of gboma and amaranth on the productivity of gboma. The experiment was conducted at the ValDERA Center of the University of Abomey-Calavi in Benin. It is a randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors and six treatments with three replications. No chemical treatments were used for pests and diseases. The results of the trials showed a significant difference in yield between treatments (F=48.09; p<0.05). Treatment T5 (compost 40t/ha+10t/ha and gboma-amaranth combination) gave the highest yield (9.55 t/ha fresh leaves) and differed significantly from the other treatments in terms of yield (p<0.05). The use of composted organic matter in combination with amaranth improved the productivity of gboma compared to conventional urea-based production without chemical control. The combination of amaranth with gboma is an alternative for successful organic gboma production.

Keywords: Compost, Crop Association, Yield, Gboma, Amaranth.

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Pakistan’s Floods and their Devastating Impacts on People
Naveela Razzaq, Nazia Nayazi, Muhammad Irfan Ullah and Pakeeza Khalid
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(4): 256-261.
Abstract
Abstract

Flood is the most destructive amongst all the natural catastrophes in Pakistan. Pakistan has been hits by floods almost every year in the recent history but the current flash floods caused by torrential monsoon rains are worst of all. The heavy monsoon rains cause runoff in rivers and streams leading to drowning of dry parts of country. Climate change is worsening the situation every coming year. In this year, 3.5 million acres of crops were destroyed and nearly 800,000 cattle were lost in Pakistan. People lost their homes, employment and have to face health issues as well. Moreover, floods lead to destruction of buildings and roads highly impacting the country’s economy. It is the need of the hour to take proper measures to prevent country’s economy from further drowning. In this paper, we have discussed the impact of flood on lives of people in detail. Some suggestions have also been made for prevention and mitigation of floods in future.

Keywords: Flood disasters, Economy, Agriculture.

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