Volume 12, No. 2, 2023
|Industrial Application of Orange Peel Waste; A Review
Zainab Tahir, Muhammad Idrees Khan, Umair Ashraf, Adan Ijaz RDN and Usama Mubarik
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(2): 71-76.
AbstractFull text pdf
Orange peel waste (OPW) is a byproduct generated in large quantities during the juice extraction process in the citrus industry. Due to its high content of bioactive compounds and organic matter, OPW has the potential to be used in various industrial applications, thus reducing the environmental impact associated with its disposal. One of the most promising applications of OPW is in the production of animal feed, where it can be used as a source of dietary fiber, pectin, and antioxidants. In addition, OPW can be used as a source of natural pigments and flavors in the food industry, particularly in the production of confectionery, bakery products, and beverages. Another potential application of OPW is in the production of biofuels and biochemicals. The high concentration of carbohydrates in OPW makes it a suitable substrate for the production of ethanol, which can be used as a fuel or a feedstock for the production of other chemicals. Furthermore, OPW can be used as a source of essential oils, which can be used in the fragrance and cosmetics industries. Other industrial applications of OPW include the production of biodegradable polymers, wastewater treatment, and the remediation of contaminated soils. However, the utilization of OPW in industrial applications is still limited by several factors, such as the high variability in composition and the lack of standardization in processing methods. In conclusion, OPW is a promising source of value-added products that can be used in various industrial applications. Further studies are needed to optimize the utilization of OPW and to overcome the challenges associated with its processing and standardization.
Keywords: Pharmaceuticals Industry, Compost, Food Industry, Pectin, Biogas, Animal Feed.
|Trichoderma: Multitalented Biocontrol Agent
Umera Ramzan, Khansaa Abid, Muhammad Arslan Zafar, Ahmad Muneeb Anwar, Mawra Nadeem, Ushna Tanveer and Urooj Fatima
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(2): 77-82.
AbstractFull text pdf
Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that has been widely studied for its ability to act as a biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. This review summarizes recent research on the mechanisms of action of Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent and its potential for use in sustainable agriculture. Trichoderma can control plant pathogens through various mechanisms, including competition for nutrients and space, mycoparasitism, and induction of systemic resistance in the host plant. The effectiveness of Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent depends on various factors, such as the species and strain used, the timing and method of application, and the environmental conditions. In addition to its biocontrol properties, Trichoderma can also promote plant growth and health by improving nutrient uptake and stress tolerance. However, the implementation of Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent in agriculture faces some challenges, such as the lack of standardized methods for production and application, and the need for further research to understand its interactions with other soil microorganisms. Overall, Trichoderma shows great potential as a sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides in agriculture, and further research and development are needed to maximize its efficacy and integration into farming practices.
Keywords: Plant Protection, Mycoparasitism, Biocontrol Agent.
|Post-Harvest Fungi of Vitellaria Paradoxa and Parkia Biglosa in Chad Republic and Bioactivity of Natural Products against some Pathogenic Fungi
Djeugap Fovo Joseph, Labassou Hara David, Essomo Etanke Sylvie, Sonkoue Meli Arlette and Serferbe Signaboubo
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(2): 83-91.
AbstractFull text pdf
In Chad Republic, kernels/grains of Shea butter Nuts butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) and locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) are two Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) which offers important revenues to the growers in the production, processing and marketing chain. However, un-identified post-harvest fungi that affect their sanitary quality, marketability and nutritional value are responsible for high post-harvest losses. The objective of the study was to contribute to the management of the post-harvest diseases of Shea butter nuts and locust bean. To achieve this, fungi were isolated from infected grains and their pathogenicity tested. Then, antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Thymus vulgaris (obtained by hydro distillation) and crude extract of Panax africana (obtained from a naturopath) was carry out by the dispersion method on the agar medium on four pathogenic fungi isolated from the two infected NTFP. Results showed that fungal species frequently associated with Shea nuts and locust bean grains were: Aspergillus niger (46%), Rhizopus nigricans (17%), Oidium sp (22%) and Cercospora sp (8%); and Oidium sp (55%), A. niger (18%), A. flavus (18%) and Cercospora sp (6%) in V. paradoxa and P. biglobosa respectively. Pathogenicity test was positive with all species of the genus Aspergillus and the species Oidium sp. Growth inhibition of the four fungal species tested with essential oil of T. vulgaris at 1.5 µl/ml and with crude extract of Panax africana at 120 µg/ml and this was significantly comparable (p<0.05) to the reference fungicide (Terazeb). Biological control of post-harvest diseases of V. paradoxa and P. biglosa grains with EO of T. vulgaris and Panax africana is envisaged for further studies.
Keywords: Antifungal activity, Post-Harvest Fungi, Vitellaria Paradoxa, Parkia Biglobosa, Panax Africana, Thymus Vulgaris.
|Microbial Contamination of Vegetables Produced at Smallholdings in the Urban and Peri-Urban Area of Meknes City, Morocco
Yousra Ameziane El Hassani, Ibrahim El Ghazi, Claude Ahouangninou and Fatiha Laziri
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(2): 92-97.
AbstractFull text pdf
The use of wastewater for irrigation is common in urban and peri-urban farms in Meknes city (Morocco). However, this water may contain waterborne pathogens that cause serious infections, including gastroenteritis, typhoid, cholera, and more severe pathologies. The consumption of contaminated vegetables could be a significant public health problem. This study aims to determine the bacterial and parasitic quality of vegetables produced in wastewater-irrigated farms in urban and peri urban areas of Meknes. The results showed a high bacterial load of vegetables. Total coliforms ranged from 1.2.102 CFU/g to 105 CFU/g, The consumption of contaminated vegetables could be a significant public health problem. This study aims to determine the bacterial and parasitic quality of vegetables produced in wastewater-irrigated farms in urban and peri urban areas of Meknes. The results showed a high bacterial load of vegetables. Total coliforms ranged from 1.2.102 CFU/g to 105 CFU/g, and fecal coliforms ranged from 10 CFU/g to 3.18.104 CFU/g. Many bacterial pathogenic species have been isolated, including Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium spp. For parasite contamination, helminths eggs were the most prevalent, followed by protozoan cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia Lamblia. Of all the vegetables examined, lettuce was the most contaminated. Therefore, the handling and consumption of irrigated vegetables can present a high risk of infection among farmers and consumers.
Keywords: Contamination, Waterborne Pathogens, Parasitic Contamination, Irrigation, Wastewater, Vegetables.
|Impact of Salt Stress on Cotton
Muhammad Shakeel Nawaz, Syed Abdul Sami, Muqaddas Bano, Mah Rukh Qamar Khan, Zunaira Anwar, Aqsa Ijaz and Tahreem Ahmed
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(2): 98-103.
AbstractFull text pdf
Salt stress is a major abiotic stress that affects plant growth and development at various stages of the plant’s life cycle. The impact of salt stress on seedling, vegetative and reproductive stages can vary depending on the salt concentration, duration of exposure, and plant species. In general, salt stress can lead to reduced germination, growth inhibition, and decreased yield and quality of crops. At the physiological level, salt stress can cause osmotic and ionic stress, leading to water imbalance and nutrient deficiency. This can result in reduced photosynthesis, stomatal closure, and reduced transpiration rates. Plants exposed to salt stress may also accumulate excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage cell membranes, proteins, and DNA. In response to salt stress, plants activate various defense mechanisms such as osmo-protectants, antioxidants, and signaling pathways to mitigate the damage caused by ROS. Salt stress can also affect the fiber quality traits of crops. Studies have shown that cotton plants exposed to salt stress produce shorter and weaker fibers, leading to reduced yield and quality of cotton fiber. In conclusion, salt stress has a significant impact on various aspects of plant growth and development, including seedling, vegetative, and reproductive stages, as well as physiological and fiber quality traits. Understanding the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in plants can help develop strategies to improve crop productivity and sustainability in saline environments.
Keywords: Cotton, Salinity, Abiotic Stress, Omics Approaches.
|Attitudes of Agricultural Extension Workers toward the use of Electronic Extension Methods in Agricultural Extension in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abdulaziz Thabet Dabiah, Yahya S. Alotibi and Ahmed H. Herab
Int J Agri Biosci, 2023, 12(2): 104-109.
AbstractFull text pdf
This research aimed to identify the agricultural extension agents’ attitudes towards the use of electronic extension methods, as well as the obstacles they face during their use, in addition to the impact of independent variables on the degree of attitudes. The research included (169) agricultural extension agents, and the number of questionnaires returned and completed according to the research conditions was (138) agricultural extension agents, representing about (82%) of the study community, and the results revealed that 64% of the agricultural extension workers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia showed positive attitude, and that 18% showed negative and neutral attitude towards electronic agricultural extension methods, and the most important obstacles were the lack of follow-up of agricultural extension agents to websites interested in electronic extension methods, followed by the lack of seriousness of some agricultural extension agents in using electronic extension methods, a significant positive correlation was found at the level of 0.01 between “educational level” and access to training in agricultural extension methods and the availability of electronic devices for agricultural extension agents as independent variables and the degree of agricultural extensions’ attitudes towards food. The electronic agricultural extension service as a dependent variable, and there is a negative significant correlation at a significant level (0.01) between age, as an independent variable, and the degree of extension trends as a dependent variable.
Keywords: Extension workers, Saudi Arabia and Electronic Extension Methods.