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Volume 13, No. 2, 2024 (Published: 30-Jun-2024)

Impact of Monosodium Glutamate on the Liver of Chick Embryo: Histology, Biochemical Properties and AVBD9 Gene Expression
Md. Sadequl Islam, Khadija Al Ferdous, Md. Nurul Amin, Md. Kamruzzaman and Md. Ariful Islam
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 76-84.
Abstract
Abstract

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is commonly used as a flavoring agent (E621) to increase food flavor, but it is still considered a controversial food additive. The present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of various MSG doses and microscopic changes in the growing embryo’s liver and AvBD9 gene expression. Ninety fertile chicken eggs were divided into three groups. Each group contained 30 eggs. Before incubation, the eggs were injected into the air cavity with 0.1mL of the MSG solution (0.75mg and 1.0mg MSG/g egg weight) and the control group with distilled water. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) staining was done for histopathology. The biochemical characteristics of amniotic fluid were examined using the photometry approach. Real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to express the immunity gene AvBD9.Significant reductions in whole body weight, length, and deformities were observed in several MSG-treated chick embryos. By day 14, these embryos exhibited reduced hepatocyte density, small necrotic areas, lipid droplets, lymphocytic infiltration, minor endothelial lining ruptures, and dilated sinusoids, indicating slight disruptions in liver architecture. Quantitatively, the number of normal hepatocytes was significantly lower in treatment groups A (39.4±1.14) and B (36±1.58) compared to the control group C (48.6±1.52) (P<0.001). Furthermore, levels of liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in the treated groups. Additionally, there was a decrease in the expression of the AvBD9 gene, underscoring the adverse impacts of MSG on growth, liver pathology, and AvBD9 gene expression in chick embryos.

Keywords: Monosodium glutamate; Chick embryo; Liver; Histology; Gene expression.

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Effect of Ocimum sanctum Extract in Controlling Life Stages of Callosobruchus chinensis L.: An In-silico Approach
Dipanjan Dey, Lupamudra Borah, Sasanka Sekhar Ghosh and Suraj Chetri
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 85-91.
Abstract
Abstract

In silico studies based on the targeted effect of bioactive phytochemicals allows the preparation of a more precise and less time-consuming experimental setup. Ocimum sanctum is an aromatic plant species whose secondary metabolites and essential oils are known for their therapeutic effects against a large number of human health disorders. It is also known to possess insecticidal properties. The targeted inhibition of biologically significant enzymes within insect bodies using plant-derived phytochemicals from O. sanctum presents a promising approach for controlling the life cycle of target insects. Assessment of in-silico interactions between these phytochemicals and key enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and alpha-amylase reveals their efficacy in biologically controlling pest species Callosobruchus chinensis. The results of the in silico analysis are further corroborated with direct toxicity tests using methanolic extracts of O. sanctum targeted at specific stages of the life cycle of the target pest. Based on the result obtained from the present study 6.16% concentration of O. sanctum is found to be LC50 for adult stage and 3.9% concentration of O. sanctum is found to be LC50 for egg stage of C. chinensis. The results affirm that O. sanctum extracts can be used in the biocontrol of C. chinensis, a stored grain pest.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Callosobruchus chinensis, in silico, Ocimum sanctum, Phytochemicals

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Overview of Quality Control and Safety in Public Health Pest Laboratory in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Elkhalifa SM, Nuha Mustafa Altilmisani, Faisal Albishri, Hassan A Gad, Talha A. Al-Dubai and Esam Omar Al-Wesabi
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 92-100.
Abstract
Abstract

Quality and safety control at the Public Health Pests Laboratory (PHPL) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, has received great attention as part of the ongoing endeavors to protect workers and the surrounding environment, in line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. This article aims to give an overview of the quality control and safety measures implemented within the PHPL in Jeddah, KSA. It reflects upon successful initiatives undertaken to strengthen the quality control and safety system while also proposing recommendations to sustain progress and enhance the overall quality control and safety framework within the PHPL in Jeddah, KSA. Broadly, an examination of quality and safety control documentation, as well as the regulatory systems within the KSA, has been conducted across various ministries and institutes related to quality and safety control. Specifically, this scrutiny has been applied to laboratory operations and their outcomes. The emphasis on quality control within the KSA is evident, aligning with regulations and laws set forth by entities such as Occupational Health in the labor system, Saudi Standards, Metrology (SASO), the Quality Organization, the National Strategic Program for Occupational Health, and the Technical Rules and Regulations of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Human Development. In addition, Quality control and safety were strengthened in the public health pests laboratory in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, by issuing; a security and safety manual, an operational plan for safe evacuation during an emergency, and implementing as a practical experiment; a quality policy; and Safety tools and equipment provided within the laboratory.

Keywords: Quality control, Safety, Public health laboratory, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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Enhancing Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment by Subcutaneous Methotrexate Injections and Anti-IL-2 Antibody Synthesis
Sabuh Sagheer, Muhammad Shahzaib Rasheed, Fatima Ashraf, Aina Rao, Mehreen Fatima, Muhammad Noman Ajmal, Ayesha Ameen, Khalil Mohamed, Ayesha Khan, Faaiz Ali, Aqeel Ahmed, Farzeen, Sidra Iqbal, Tabish Arif, Zara Abid, Hassan Raza, Muhammad Talha Mujeeb, Anadil Noel, Farhat Batool, Muhammad Waqas, Komal Shahzadi, and Muhammad Zubair Zafar
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 101-111.
Abstract
Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an incapacitating autoimmune disorder marked by joint inflammation, cartilage degradation, and bone erosion, often results in disability. Diagnosis relies on detecting Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), offering insights into disease progression before symptoms emerge. While Methotrexate (MTX) is a standard RA treatment, concerns over insufficient responses and gastrointestinal side effects prompt exploration of subcutaneous MTX injections. This method, established in the USA and Europe and recently approved in Japan, presents a potentially safer and more effective alternative. Additionally, research indicates that elevated Interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels correlate with reduced regulatory T-cell (Treg) levels, exacerbating RA progression. Mouse models demonstrate promise in slowing RA through IL-2 antibody-mediated inhibition, a concept validated in clinical studies involving RA patients. The investigation extends to the potential use of subcutaneous MTX injections as a preferable treatment modality in Pakistan, suggesting a comprehensive approach to managing RA.

Keywords: Interleukin 2, Clinical Studies, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Methotrexate, Antibodies

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Assessment of Ecological and Biological Characteristics of Gleditsia triacanthos L. for Agroforestry of Degraded Areas
Aliya Khuzhakhmetova and Kristina Melnik
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 112-117.
Abstract
Abstract

Gleditsia triacanthos as a drought-tolerant multipurpose species, is introduced into artificial plantings in the southern regions of Russia. The aim is to study the ecological and biological features of Gleditsia triacanthos in the conditions of the northern border of their cultivation (Volgograd Oblast, Russia). The studies were conducted from February to October annually (from 2019 to 2023) in the field (assessment of winter hardiness and drought resistance, measurement of taxational and reproductive indices, recording the passage of phenological phases, selection of plant samples – leaves, fruits) and laboratory conditions (freezing of shoots, study of water deficit parameters, water-holding capacity, assessment of fruit quality). It was established that the northern limit of cultivation of Gleditsia triacanthos is V zone of winter hardiness. Taxation parameters of G. triacanthos and the influence of soil-climatic conditions on them were revealed. Ranking of species by winter hardiness was carried out. G. triacanthos in the first variant (at –37 °C) had insignificant damage to buds (from 6 to 18%), annual shoots (from 4 to 20%) and perennial shoots (from 2 to 10%). The variability of fruiting indicators under the conditions of stress factor exposure was revealed. The average and low level of variability was revealed for most morphological traits of fruits and seeds. Weather conditions during fruit ripening have a noticeable effect on seed weight. Reproductive parameters of G. triacanthos var inermis are more influenced by environmental conditions, which reflects correlations between morphometric parameters of fruits and seeds.

Keywords: Gleditsia triacanthos L.; Introduction; Bioecological features; Artificial plantations.

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Physiological and Morphological Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to Seed Priming with Indole Acetic Acid as Plant Growth Regulator
Mohammed O Alshaharni
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 118-127.
Abstract
Abstract

The use of plant growth hormones has become increasingly important in agriculture as they have the potential to improve plant growth, act as slow-release fertilizers, and facilitate targeted delivery of agrochemicals for sustainable crop production. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of Indole acetic acid (IAA) on the growth rate and antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat and tomato plants. Different concentrations of IAA (control, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20mmol.L-1) were applied for 24 hours using seed priming techniques for wheat and tomato seeds. Our results showed that the application of IAA resulted in enhanced plant height, shoot and root biomass, and leaf area. Chlorophyll (a, b) and total chlorophyll contents were also promoted in wheat and tomato with varying responses. The highest growth level in wheat was recorded at 2.5mmol.L-1 treatment, whereas in tomato, it was recorded at 5mmol.L-1 followed by 10mmol.L-1 treatment. Moreover, the application of IAA significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities such as Glutathione, Nitric Oxide, and malondialdehyde. These results suggest that IAA has a different effect on wheat and tomato seed priming, indicating that it may increase plant growth and development in different responses.

Keywords: Growth regulators; Antioxidant Enzymes; Growth Rate; Chlorophyll content

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Effects of Early Nutrition Programming on Post-Hatching Performance and Small Intestine Characteristics of Kampung Chicken
Eka Azhariyanti, Djoni Prawira Rahardja and Sri Purwanti
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 128-135.
Abstract
Abstract

This study was conducted to elucidate the efficacy of early nutrition programming on the performance of Kampung chicken. The study consisted of two stages: pre-hatching (in ovo feeding [IOF]) and post-hatching (neonatal nutrition [NN]). In total 180 hatching eggs were used in the pre-hatching stage, which were distributed into five groups: IOF-0 (negative control), IOF-1 (positive control), IOF-2 (0.5% Arginine), IOF-3 (1% Arginine), and IOF-4 (2% Arginine). Twenty newly hatched chickens (NHCs) from each IOF group were selected and divided into NN0 (0.2% saline) and NN1 (a mix of commercial probiotics, inulin, and lysine diluted in 0.2% saline) which were provided in drinking water. In addition, 100 NHCs were used arranged as a 5×2 factorial based on a completely randomized design. A commercial diet was used in the second stage. Performance, daily feed and water intake, body weight (BW), gross- morphometric indices of small intestine segments, and histo-morphometric indices of the ileum were evaluated. The final BW improved significantly (P<0.05) at IOF-3 and IOF-4, and NN effectively supported further increases. IOF and NN did not significantly affect feed intake during the experiment. Examinations of gross- and histo-morphometric showed an increased capacity for digestion and absorption of small intestinal segments, which was indicated by increasing the length/weight ratio and expanding the absorption villus surface area of the ileum. In conclusion, the best beneficial synergistic effect of early nutrition programming on Kampung chickens was achieved by the combination of IOF 1% L-Arginine and NN, which indicated by BW gain and feed conversion ratio.

Keywords: Early Nutrition Programming, Kampung Chicken, Small Intestine Morphometry, Performance.

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Financial Support for Organic Agricultural Production: Experience of Some EU Countries and Prospects for Ukraine
Bogdan Derevyanko, Liudmyla Nikolenko, Oleksandra Severinova, Olha Turkot and Olena Volkovych
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 136-143.
Abstract
Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to study financial support for creating and operating farms that produce organic products in certain EU countries and to provide proposals for implementing financial support measures in Ukraine during the war and post-war period. To achieve this goal, the following research methods were used: hermeneutic semantic analysis, systemic-structural analysis, comparative legal method, etc. The hermeneutic semantic analysis was used to study financial support for creating organic farms in Ukraine. Proposals were made to support organic farming in Ukraine using the systemic-structural analysis based on the experience of different countries. The comparative legal method was used when considering financial support for creating organic farms in some EU countries (Poland, Spain, Austria, Denmark, The Netherlands, and Romania). The scientific novelty lies in the study of financial support for the creation of organic farms in some EU countries and Ukraine, as well as in the provision of proposals for the implementation and receipt of financial support for farms producing organic products in war and post-war Ukraine. The paper pointed out the need for Ukrainian farms to organize effective legal work, manifesting in the high-quality and timely development of the necessary documents and in the preparation and approval by the state of programs to assist farms in their creation and production of organic products.

Keywords: Food security, Economic security, Financial support, Organic farms, Organic products, European Union countries.

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Enhancing Banana Drying Efficiency: A Phase Change Heat Storage System Utilizing Charcoal Briquettes
Thanwamas Phasinam, Chatchawin Nualsri, Sittichai Choosumrong, Dowroong Watcharinrat and Khongdet Phasinam
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 144-151.
Abstract
Abstract

This study aimed to enhance the efficiency of banana drying processes through the development and testing of a phase change heat storage system utilizing heat from charcoal briquettes. The system was designed and modeled using SolidWorks software, incorporating a parabolic dome and a heat storage unit made of SS400 steel. Temperature measurements were conducted within the dome and the heat storage system and efficiency testing was performed by comparing drying methods. Moisture content testing of market-dried bananas provided baseline data, with an average moisture content of 26.51% (w.b.). Drying experiments using a parabolic dome solar dryer demonstrated a reduction in banana moisture content from 70.18 to 25.53% (w.b.) after 4 days. Subsequently, testing with the phase change heat storage system revealed a further reduction in moisture content to 25.58% (w.b.) within 3 days of drying. The system-maintained temperatures inside the dome during nighttime, utilizing heat from charcoal briquettes to sustain drying processes. The results indicate that the phase change heat storage system significantly improves drying efficiency, with a 25% increase in production capacity compared to traditional solar drying methods. Implementation of this system offers a sustainable solution for banana processing, contributing to increased efficiency, reduced energy consumption, and enhanced product quality. This study underscores the potential of innovative drying technologies to address challenges in agricultural processing and promote sustainability within the industry.

Keywords: Banana drying, Phase change heat storage, Charcoal briquettes, Sustainable agriculture, Energy efficiency.

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Alterations of Acid-Base Balance, Blood Gases, and Hematobiochemical Parameters in Goats with Difficult Parturition
Mohamed Tharwat, Mohamed Marzok and Abdulrahman A Alkheraif
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 152-156.
Abstract
Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the influence of difficult parturition on the alterations of acid-base balance, blood gases, and hematological and biochemical parameters in goats versus goats with normal parturition. Sixteen female full-term, local-breed goats showing prolonged and difficult parturition were used. Goats were presented 24-48h after the onset of parturition. Fourteen goats with normal birth were used as controls. Both groups collected blood samples to determine acid-base status, blood gases, and hematological and biochemical parameters. Compared to a value of 7.41±0.05 in goats with normal birth, the blood pH in the goats with difficult parturition was 7.33±0.18, with a non-significant difference. The PCO2 in controls was 35.1±3.4mmHg versus 33.8±6.0mmHg in goats with dystocia. The PO2 was 43.9±4.9mmHg in controls versus 42.4±25.7mmHg in goats with dystocia. The base excess was 6.8±7.9mmol/L in goats with dystocia versus 1.3±6.1mmol/L in controls, with a statistically significant difference. The HCO3 was lower in goats with difficult birth compared to normal parturition (18.9±5.0mmol/L vs 26.2±6.2mmol/L). The TCO2 was also lower in goats with difficult birth versus goats with normal birth (20.0±5.2mmol/L vs 25.9±3.9mmol/L). The lactic acid level was significantly higher in goats with dystocia versus those with normal birth (4.4±2.5mmol/L vs 1.4±0.5mmol/L). With the exception of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, no significant changes were encountered in the hematological parameters. The enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) differed significantly between the goats with dystocia compared to those with normal parturition. The creatine kinase (CK) level was also significantly higher in goats with a difficult birth. On the contrary, the phosphorus and magnesium levels were significantly lower in goats with dystocia compared to those with normal birth. However, the glucose level was higher in goats with dystocia versus healthy controls. It is concluded that goats with difficult parturition had metabolic acidosis versus those with normal parturition based on the increased blood levels of HCO3 and TCO2. Differences in the blood lactate are also significant in goats with dystocia versus controls. Other remarkable findings are the differences in enzymatic activity of AST, CK, and ALP, the decreased minerals of phosphorus and magnesium, and increased levels of blood sugar. All these changes must be considered while managing goats with difficult parturition.

Keywords: Animals; Biomarkers; Blood; Dystocia; Goats.

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Phylogenetic and Genetic Variation of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) from Island of Java, Indonesia based on trnK Chloroplast Gene
Ganies Riza Aristya, Salfa Athallah Agtari Nabillah, Rina Sri Kasiamdari, Janis Damaiyani and Heri Prabowo
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 157-166.
Abstract
Abstract

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) belongs to the Poaceae family, which is the largest family in the Poales order. Sugarcane plays a crucial role as the primary ingredient in the production of sweeteners such as sugar on a large scale. The sugarcane plants extensively cultivated in Indonesia are hybrids resulting from the crossbreeding of Saccharum officinarum with Saccharum spontaneum. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic diversity of sugarcane cultivars have been proposed to identify specific potential groups and to optimize hybridization procedures and selection to evaluate superior genotypes. This study aims to determine the genetic and phylogenetic diversity of S. officinarum based on the DNA barcoding molecular approach using the trnK gene. In this research, the trnK gene was amplified through PCR method on five S. officinarum cultivars originating from Java Island. The amplified results were then sequenced and aligned using MegaX software. Ambiguous DNA nucleotides were manually edited using GeneStudio software. Genetic variations including the number of haplotypes (h), haplotype diversity (Hd), number of polymorphic sites, and number of parsimony sites were analyzed using DnaSP software and confirmed using GenAIEx 6 software. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the Maximum-Likelihood (ML) method. The sugarcane cultivars POJ, JR03, Pringu, KK, and NX04 showed trnK gene amplification with a 252bp fragment and formed a single clade in phylogenetic analysis (ML bootstrap value of 100; BI posterior probability of 1). Haplotype analysis revealed they do not belong to the same group. Indonesian sugarcane has distinct trnK genetic flow compared to those in Japan, China, South Africa, Brazil, and Australia.

Keywords: DNA Barcoding, Genetic distance, trnK

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Adoption Challenges and Awareness Level of Sunflower Growers in District Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan
Muhammad Qayyum, Abdulaziz Thabet-Dabiah, Shoukat Ali, Ahsan Ali, Muhammad Saeed Shahbaz, Asghar Ali, Muhammad Saleem and Muhammad Asghar
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 167-171.
Abstract
Abstract

Pakistan is the fourth largest country that imports edible oil, spending more than $4 billion on it. Pakistan’s per capita edible oil consumption is rising, with current consumption estimated to be between 4.5 and 4.8 million MT. Domestically produced oilseeds only satisfy 18% of the total demand. Heavy dependence on edible oil imports poses a grave risk to national food security and the economy. The government hoped to reduce the import bill by expanding the sunflower production area, but unfortunately, the desired results were not achieved. Therefore, this study investigated farmers’ awareness level regarding sunflower crop and the obstacles that hinder its adoption. Using the snowball sampling technique, a total sample of 80 respondents was selected from two tehsils of district Khanewal. Results revealed that the following factors impede the adoption of sunflower: low market rates, unavailability of buyers, adverse effects on subsequent crops and low per-acre yield, lack of mechanization, crop lodging, and dearth of quality seed. This research recommends that the government reevaluate the current marketing structure to ensure sunflower farmers get a fair price. It also recommends broadening sunflower extension services through the agriculture department (extension).

Keywords: Sunflower, Extension services, Adoption Challenges, Edible oil.

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Isolation and Identification of Lignin Cellulolytic Fungi from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches and the Soil Around Palm Trees in South Kalimantan, Indonesia
Annida Iqlima, Mansyur, Windu Negara, Yuda Purwana Roswanjaya, Ezi Masdia Putri, Ruslan Abdul Gopar, Hikmah Agustina Prastiwi, Riris Delima Purba, Putut Suryo Negoro, Faheem Ahmed Khan and Arif Krisbudiman
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 172-180.
Abstract
Abstract

The integration of oil palm plantations and cattle farming is currently being intensively developed in South Kalimantan. Both sectors can mutually benefit each other, especially in addressing waste issues in both sectors. Oil palm empty fruit bunches are one of the most abundant byproducts of palm oil processing with high lignin content. Fungi have been found to have the ability to alter biomass components and can be naturally found in empty fruit bunches during the decaying process, while the cattle excretion process can increase the fungal diversity. This study aimed to isolate and identify the fungi present in oil palm empty fruit bunches and the soil within palm oil plantations, and to identify the fungi’s ability to degrade fiber. After the isolated fungi were identified through morphological and DNA sequencing, the results revealed the presence of two potential species of fungi, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Acremonium sp., which possess the ability to degrade oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber fraction and enhance its digestibility. The type of fungi and incubation period were found to significantly alter the Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and lignin levels (P<0.05). The fungi were also found to significantly alter the In Vitro Digestibility (IVTD) and Digestible Neutral Detergent Fiber (dNDF) levels (P<0.05), indicating digestion by fungal activity. Consequently, it can be concluded that the isolated fungi, especially L. theobromae from soils possess the best ability to degrade fiber and enhance the digestibility of biomass.

Keywords: Fungi, Integrated farming, Oil palm, Empty fruit bunches, Soil, Cattle

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Intellectual Assessment of Integral Indicators for Grain Crop Yield and Structure Using Expert System
Bystrenina Irina
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 181-189.
Abstract
Abstract

Grain crops are crucial to the food security of all countries worldwide. Humanity benefits greatly from them as they provide the primary source of nourishment and a wide range of food products, such as wheat, grains, and animal feed. Analyzing grain yields in the context of sustainable agricultural development and food security is an urgent task for farming producers and many countries’ economies. Maintaining production indicators enables the optimization of business activities in agro-industrial enterprises, such as forecasting supply volumes and managing risks. This work aims to develop an expert system that analyzes the yield of grain crops and their main structural elements. This system will take into account various input parameters such as crop information, botanical description, harvest year, number of plants per square meter, number of shoots per square meter, number of productive shoots per square meter, height of shoots, weight of a sheaf without roots, ear length, number of grains per ear, grain weight per ear, actual grain moisture, and seed germination. In the present study, the authors concentrated on examining the functional, informational, and behavioral models and the expert system components. Implementing these system models allows the user to analyze the yield of the crops in question, identify their main structural elements, forecast yield, determine their structure and seeding rate, receive recommendations for potential crops, and improve the conditions for maximizing production.

Keywords: Crops, Yield, Crop structure, Information technology, Data analysis, Machine learning, Expert system

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Effects of ”Bokashi” Organic Fertilizer on Physico-chemical Soil Fertility and the Yield of Cocoa Trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in Daloa (Central-Western Ivory Coast)
Konan Jeanne Armelle Manhounou, Konate Zoumana, Kotaix Acka Jacques Alain, Konate Yacouba and Bakayoko Sidiky
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 190-195.
Abstract
Abstract

Most cocoa-growing soils in Côte d’Ivoire are currently of low-quality chemical fertility. This makes it difficult to optimize the development of cocoa trees, and to ensure sustainable cocoa production in Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of this study was to improve soil fertility under cocoa trees and cocoa production in Côte d’Ivoire. The study was conducted in a completely randomized Fisher block design, with three repetitions over two years. The organic fertilizer “Bokashi” was applied as follows different doses in the crowns around the cocoa trees. Thus, treatments T0 (treatment control), T1 (2 kg of Bokashi), T2 (4 kg of Bokashi) and T3 (6 kg of Bokashi) fractionated in two equal inputs per year were made per cocoa plant. Soil samples were sampled before and after Bokashi application to assess initial fertility and at the end of the study. The fertilizing potential of “Bokashi” and cocoa yields fertilized with “Bokashi” were evaluated and compared with those of the T0 control treatment. The data collected were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the software SAS 9.4. The results obtained revealed that “Bokashi” contains nutrients which improve soil fertility and cocoa yields. The application of “Bokashi” has increased the soil’s content of elements essential for development and cocoa production. The application of Bokashi has reduced the levels of aluminum, which is toxic plants in high quantity. T2 treatment with a dose of 2 kg of “Bokashi” per year and per yields of 1351.05 and potential yields of 1351.05 kg and 1846.8 kg per hectare is the optimum dose for improving fertility soil chemistry and cocoa production.

Keywords: Bokashi, Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Fertility, Soils under cocoa trees.

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Biofertilizers Production and Climate Changes on Environmental Prospective Applications for some Nanoparticles Produced from some Microbial Isolates
Aiad Abdelkareim Akhreim, Mahmoud F Gaballa, Gomaa Sulaiman and Idress Hamad Attitalla
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 196-203.
Abstract
Abstract

This study aimed to enhance microbial isolates’ growth and nutrient availability through the use of a mixed biofertilizer and various nutritional media. Additionally, the impact of adding ZnO nanoparticles on agricultural soil fertility and the development of microbial isolates was investigated. The preservation of microbial isolates, maintenance of the ideal food-to-microorganism ratio, and vitality assurance were achieved through this procedure. The resulting liquid biological fertilizer, containing a beneficial and eco-friendly community of living microorganisms, can be safely applied to agricultural soil. The application of zinc oxide as a nano-composite to a solution containing microorganisms effectively fertilized banana plants without causing harm or pollution. Biofertilizers, which are organic and contain specific microorganisms, offer a greener alternative to chemical fertilizers, meeting plant nutritional needs while minimizing environmental pollution. Correct utilization of biofertilizers is crucial for preserving soil quality, increasing crop yields, and protecting the environment.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Eco-friendly, Chemical fertilization, Biological control, Biocidal, Fungicide

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Analysis of the Factors Hindering the Adoption of Cattle Business Insurance by Farmers in Bone Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia
Kurnia Nur Islami, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin and Syahdar Baba
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 204-215.
Abstract
Abstract

The objective of this study was to identify the factors that hinder farmers in adopting cattle business insurance. The research was conducted in November and December 2023 in Kahu Sub-district, Bone Regency, and South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. A total of 68 respondents were included in the study, comprising 34 farmers who had adopted cattle business insurance and 34 farmers who had never adopted the insurance program. The data collection methods employed were observation and interviews. The data were analyzed using the Delphi method, which enabled the opinions of farmers in the field to be obtained, namely those who had utilized insurance and those who had not taken advantage of the Cattle Business Insurance program at all. This approach ensured the acquisition of accurate information complementing the research analysis results. The factors obtained from the Delphi method were then analyzed again using factor analysis tools. The fundamental principle of factor analysis is to simplify the description of data by reducing the number of variables/dimensions and distinguishing priority variables based on the results of the existing ranking. The results demonstrated that five of the nine selected variables exhibited the most significant effect on inhibiting farmers from adopting cattle business insurance. The results of the grouping of variables included in factor 1 (one) are as follows: lack of socialization about cattle livestock business insurance. (X2), the length of the claim approval process (X6), and a lack of awareness of the importance of Cattle Livestock Business Insurance (X8). The variables included in factor 2 (two) are less understood claim procedures (X1) and the short time given at the time of claim (X5).

Keywords: Insurance, Factors, Farmers, Cattle, Business

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Effect of Addition of Fermented Green Juice, Bacterial Inoculant, Enzyme or Effective Microorganisms on Fermentation Quality of Timothy Silage
Lamiaa Selim, Kazuo Ataku and Mohamed Tharwat
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 216-221.
Abstract
Abstract

A laboratory scale experiment was performed to investigate the efficiency of fermented green juice (FGJ) as a silage additive and compare it with other biological additives such as commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant, cellulolytic enzyme and three different kinds of effective microorganisms (EM). The organic acid composition and microbial flora of FGJ prepared from alfalfa and timothy were studied. After 2 days of incubation, FGJs recorded a low pH value, and the fermentation products included lactic acid and acetic acid; however, they did not include butyric or propionic acids. LAB count had significantly increased to a level of 108 cfu/g. Molds, yeasts, and enterobacterial counts were decreased to less than 3×103 cfu/g. Except for EM1, EM2, and EM3 treated silages, all silages, including controls, were well preserved with a slight difference in quality. Although the untreated silage was well preserved, the addition of timothy or alfalfa FGJ to timothy grass at the ensiling time resulted in higher lactic acid production, lower (P<0.01) pH value, and lower NH3-N % TN than the control silage. Compared to other additives, LAB inoculation had the highest efficacy in improving the fermentation quality of timothy silage, while enzyme addition had no effect, and all silages treated with EM were poor quality. This study showed that FGJ may effectively improve the fermentation quality of timothy silage as defined by a lower pH value and higher lactic acid production. No significant difference was found in the efficiency between timothy and alfalfa FGJs.

Keywords: Corn silage, Fermentation, Fermented green juice, Nutrition, Timothy silage

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Organic Farming Practices and Crops Impact Chemical Elements in the Soil of Southeastern Kazakhstan
Gulvira Yessenbayeva, Serik Kenenbayev, Yerlan Dutbayev and Akmarzhan Salykova
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 222-227.
Abstract
Abstract

This study examined the influence of elements of organic and traditional agriculture and cultivated crops on the chemical properties of the soil in southeastern Kazakhstan. The study included a comparative assessment of traditional crop cultivation technology and technology with organic farming elements. It was established that the elements of organic farming have a significant impact on the level of exchangeable calcium in the soil. The average level of exchangeable calcium when using elements of organic agriculture was lower (2,222.50mg/kg) than with traditional cultivation technology (2,258.75mg/kg). The choice of crops significantly affected the content of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, and mobile boron in the soil. The highest level of ammonium nitrogen was found in corn and the maximum level of nitrate nitrogen in winter peas. There was a positive correlation between ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, as well as the level of ammonium nitrogen and exchangeable calcium. A weak positive correlation was observed between the level of nitrate nitrogen and exchangeable calcium in the soil. There was a weak negative correlation between ammonium nitrogen levels and boron mobility. The findings highlight the complexity of the interrelationships between agricultural methods, the content of nutrients in the soil, and the needs of crops, which requires an individual approach to planning and implementing agricultural practices.

Keywords: Assessment, Corn, Cultivation technology, Soybeans, Winter peas.

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The Effect of different Irrigation Systems on Water use Efficiency and Yield using Soilless Cultivation
Khaled Radi Al-Masaied and Ahmad Abu-Awwad
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 228-236.
Abstract
Abstract

Climate change and irrigation water scarcity called attention to investigate the cultivation technology that saves water and maximizes plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of using a soilless closed irrigation system (SC) on saving irrigation water and maximizing crop production as compared to a soilless open (SO) and conventional (C) irrigation system. The randomized complete block experimental design was used to overcome the planting variations. The experiment was applied to cucumber plants. The irrigation systems were provided with valves and meters that enable the measurement of irrigation amounts and the drainage water for both closed and open systems. The experiment design was supplied by the equipment needed to circulate the drainage water for irrigation in the SC. The measurements in the experiment included climate measurements, irrigation water used, water use efficiency, cucumber yield per harvest, and the total cucumber yield for each treatment. The results showed that the net water used for irrigation significantly decreased in the SC treatment due to drained water circulation as compared to the SO treatment without water circulation and the C treatment. The C treatment showed the highest irrigation water requirements. The crop yield related to the cucumber seedlings and total yield showed the highest yield for the SC treatment followed by the SO treatment and the lowest yield was for the conventional systems. It was concluded that the highest water use efficiency and crop production were recorded for the SC treatment compared to SO and C treatments. The study recommended an increase in farmers’ awareness of SC irrigation systems and investment the technology in this area.

Keywords: Soilless Closed system, Soilless Open system, Conventional system, Water use efficiency, Cucumber crop yield.

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Efficacy of Selected Pesticides against the Fall Armyworm Infestation in Small Holder Maize Production in Zambia
Mweshi Mukanga, Matthews Matimelo, Kabosha Lwinya, Owen Machuku, Lorraine Chilipa, Marian Lupapula, Sylvia Misengo Tembo1 and Gilson Chipabika
Int J Agri Biosci, 2024, 13(2): 237-249.
Abstract
Abstract

This study examined the influence of elements of organic and traditional agriculture and cultivated crops on the chemical properties of the soil in southeastern Kazakhstan. The study included a comparative assessment of traditional crop cultivation technology and technology with organic farming elements. It was established that the elements of organic farming have a significant impact on the level of exchangeable calcium in the soil. The average level of exchangeable calcium when using elements of organic agriculture was lower (2,222.50mg/kg) than with traditional cultivation technology (2,258.75mg/kg). The choice of crops significantly affected the content of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, and mobile boron in the soil. The highest level of ammonium nitrogen was found in corn and the maximum level of nitrate nitrogen in winter peas. There was a positive correlation between ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, as well as the level of ammonium nitrogen and exchangeable calcium. A weak positive correlation was observed between the level of nitrate nitrogen and exchangeable calcium in the soil. There was a weak negative correlation between ammonium nitrogen levels and boron mobility. The findings highlight the complexity of the interrelationships between agricultural methods, the content of nutrients in the soil, and the needs of crops, which requires an individual approach to planning and implementing agricultural practices.

Keywords: Assessment, Corn, Cultivation technology, Soybeans, Winter peas.

pdf Full text pdf