Volume 8, No. 2, 2019
|Increasing Chicken Productivity Through Improved Housing System: Demonstration of Poultry Cage in Tigray
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 56-61.
AbstractFull text pdf
Keeping poultry makes a substantial contribution to household food security throughout the developing world. It helps diversify incomes and provides quality food, energy, fertilizer and a renewable asset. Despite of those economic advantages, there is no standard poultry house in our region. Chickens are living with human all over the night unless otherwise they become attack by predators. MAMRERC developed and improved the Modern Poultry cage which is simple, close, manageable and relatively inexpensive technology which was verified during the participatory evaluation. The overall objective of the project is to improve product and productivity of poultry by demonstration improved chicken houses. Representative farmers were selected and training was given to 143 farmers and DAs. The demonstration of improved poultry cage was conducted on 12 poultry producers across 4 woredas. Economic data and farmers’ perception were collected. Descriptive statistics was used for analyzing quantitative data. The simple statistical analysis across all the demonstration sites indicated that the improved poultry cage had higher advantage over the Traditional as per the perception of farmers. The partial budget analysis comparing with tradition poultry cages also shows that one birr addition investment in the improved poultry cage will provide 3.53, and 6.04 birr gain in 15, and 21 chicken holding capacities respectively. In addition the technology is land economy; it is the house which can assist chickens in door because it provides all necessary living facilities to chickens. Most of the farmers interviewed perceived that improved poultry cage was suitable and have great relative advantages. It was, thus, recommended that further popularizing and scale out of this improved poultry cages are quite pertinent.
Keywords: Demonstration, Chicken, Poultry Cage
|L-Glutaminase Production by a Terrestrial Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Nigerian Soil
Okpalla Jude, Umeh Sophina O and Dim Okechi L
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 62-66.
AbstractFull text pdf
L-Glutaminase production by Pseudomonas species isolated from the soil was studied. Soil samples were collected in sterile polythene bags from different locations within Chukwuemeka Odumuegwo Ojukwu University Uli. Bacteria isolates (55) from the soil samples were screened for glutaminase using rapid plate assay method. The plates were observed for formation of pink zone around the colony which indicated glutaminase production by the isolate. The best isolate was selected and subjected to optimization studies for enhanced glutaminase production. The results showed that bacteria isolate ALG3 produced the highest glutaminase with a pink zone diameter of 20mm, while isolate ELG4 recorded the least yield with a pink zone diameter of 8mm. Isolate ALG3 was selected for further studies and was identified as Pseudomonas species. The maximum l-glutaminase yield(43.3U/ml) was achieved at 6%v/v inoculums size, while the least was recorded with 2%v/v inoculums size. Highest glutaminase yield (27.1U/ml) was observed in 50ml medium, while the least was recorded with 75ml medium. Glucose (0.1%v/v) and ammonium sulphate (0.1%v/v) stimulated maximum glutaminase production of 78.3U/ml and 65.0U/ml respectively. Maximum glutaminase yield of 12.4U/ml and 21.49 U/ml was achieved with 0.04%v/v KH2PO4 and 0.3% (w/v) K2HPO4. The study has shown that the soil is replete with many glutaminase producing bacteria and that optimization study can greatly enhance glutaminase yield.
Keywords: L-glutaminase, Pseudomonas species, Soil, Rapid plate assay
|Demonstration of Improved Feed Trough for Efficient Utilization of Crop Residue: The Case of Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Tesfay Atsbha, Solomon Wayu, Nguse Gebretsadkan, Hagos Kidane and Kiflom Degf
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 67-74.
AbstractFull text pdf
Farmers are practicing low efficient utilization of crop residues that expose to large wastage during feeding their livestock. Therefore, demonstration of improved feed trough at small scale farmers to reduce wastage of crop residue biomass was conducted at four districts of southern Tigray. A total of 61 improved feed trough technologies were constructed, and data like amount of feed consumed, wastage, and farmers perception were collected from randomly selected 29 farmers and data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent t-test. The result of the study pointed out that majority (86.24%) of the farmers in the traditional feed trough feeding feed three times a day, while nearly 65.5% were used a once a time offered for two days in the improved feed trough. The average values of Eragrostis tef .straw, wheat straw and Sorghum bicolour Stover of feed wastage at both feed trough was significantly difference (p=0.02, 0.0001 and 0.001), respectively. The study concludes that the wastage of feed from improved feed trough had lower and is economical to use it to reduce wastage of feed as compared with traditional feed trough. Therefore, it is economical to popularization the technology for efficient utilization of crop residue at small-scale farmers by concerned governmental and non-governmental organizations.
Keywords: Crop residue; Feed trough; Feed utilization; Perception; Southern Tigray
|Thymus fontanesii Bois and Reut Essential Oils Effect on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albidinis Date Palm Phoenix datylifera Parasite
A Kadiri, F Benamara, A Hennia and Z Ighilhariz
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 75-79.
AbstractFull text pdf
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp albedinis is among the most aggressive soil fungi causing death of date palm. As a biological control mean tool, we evaluated the antifungal essential oil (EO) activity extracted by hydro distillation from Thymus fontanesii leaves harvested from Tafraoui region in Oran south (Algeria), on the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp albedinis Fusarium. EO which were tested in vitro at different concentrations (1000, 400, 200, 100, 50, 33.3 and 20 ppm) in order to define the fungal growth inhibition rate (MIC). Inhibition is obtained from 100 ppm. Thymus fontanesii essential oil in vitro test on leaves inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp albedinis shows an 100 % inhibitory activity on disease development.
Keywords: Antifungal activity; Bayud; in vitro, in vivo; Disease
|Demonstration of Improved Forage Species: Impact on Improvement of On-Farm Dairy Cattle Milk Production, in the Case of Highland of Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Solomon Wayu, Tesfay Atsbha and Temesgen Tesfay
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 80-84.
AbstractFull text pdf
Demonstration and feeding of improved forage species were undertaken at Emba Alaje woreda of southern Tigray with the objective to increase dairy milk production with the supplementation of improved forage varieties. The experimental design was single plot design with farmers considered as replication for forage demonstration and cross over effect design was applied for milk yield data collection before and after feeding. Oat (CI-8251 and CI-8237), vetch (Vicia sativa and Vicia dasycarpa) and alfalfa (Hairy Peruvian) varieties were demonstrated. Milk yield data was collected for 20 days before and after feeding of the improved forage. A total of 29 dairy cows were used as experimental animals. Farmer practice (T1) and farmer practice plus supplemented with oat and vetch mixture and alfalfa (T2) were used as treatment feeds. The two varieties of oats and vetches had not showed significant different in DM yield at farmer management. Supplemented cow’s with green alfalfa had higher milk yield (2.28 litter/day/head) compared to non-supplemented (1.04 litter/day/head). However, supplemented dairy cows with mixture of oat (75%) and vetch (25%) had not significant different compared to non-supplemented cows. In general, the intervention of improved forages were increased the milk yield per day compared to non-supplemented and increased additional economic return to small holder farmers. Therefore, forage varieties like oat, vetch and alfalfa were suitable to the highland area for alleviating feed shortage in terms of quantity and quality.
Keywords: Alfalfa, Demonstration, Dry matter, Highland; Milk, Oat, Vetch
|Genotype by Environment Interaction of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes Tested in Southern Tigray, Ethiopias
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 85-88.
AbstractFull text pdf
The performance of wheat genotypes is often confounded by genotype by environment interaction (GXE), therefore, it is important to breed for cultivars with minimal of such interactions to ensure high productivity. Sixteen bread wheat genotypes were tested across 6 environments with the objective of selecting bread wheat genotypes with less genotype by environment interaction and higher yield. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design using three replications. The classical analysis of variance was significant (P<0.01) for environment, genotype and genotype by environment interaction. The magnitude of the environmental variance explained was 27 times larger than the genotype, and 10 times larger than the genotype by environment interaction. Using the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) the two principal components were significant and cumulatively explained 78.6%. The AMMI1 biplot indicated that the genotypes ETBW-6463 was high yielding with low contribution to the genotype by environment interaction translating to its stability. The testing environments: E1, E2 and E3 were favorable, but E4, E5 and E6 were less favorable. Genotypes ETBW-6170, Danda’a, ETBW-6463 and ETBW-6295 had wider adaption across the growing environments. while, genotype ETBW-6765, ETBW-6754, ETBW-6434 and ETBW-6801 were specifically adapted to E4, E3, E5 and E1 respectively.
Keywords: AMMI, Biplot, Bread wheat, Stability
|Review on Assessment of Horticultural Crops Production, Constraints and Opportunities in Ethiopia
Abebe Assefa and Bizayehu Tesfaye
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 89-98.
AbstractFull text pdf
Horticultural crops provide an abundant and inexpensive source of energy, body-building nutrients, vitamins and minerals. This review paper was aimed to recognize opportunities, constraints and potentials in Ethiopia for production of horticultural crops. Major opportunities and potentials existing in the country for production of horticultural were reviewed and described. Policies and incentives by the government to attract both foreign and domestic investors engaged in horticulture production were found to be attractive. Ethiopia has a comparative advantage in production of horticultural commodities on account its favorable climate, proximity to European and Middle Eastern markets and cheap labor. Low cost, disciplined and trainable Labor force and the size of its domestic market and the numerous river basins affording great potential for irrigation. The status of horticulture production including indigenous one and consumption in the country yet need further improvement. Recently, despite of the ups and downs observed, the demand for horticultural crops especially for export is increasing. In general, the drawback to this sector in Ethiopia mainly include social and cultural habits of the population like cereal based food habit, dietary preferences for meat and other animal products, and distaste for vegetable crops, lack of consumer awareness, economic reasons of the local consumers, absence of nutrition intervention programmed using horticulture. However, due to perishable nature and biological nature of horticulture production process, horticulture productions are risky investment activities. The constraints of horticultural production including vegetables production could be categorized in to farmer related, institutional, natural and infrastructure related factors. The review of literatures, we can summarized that horticultural crop production in country have great potential and opportunity with the great demands in export as well as domestic consumption and plays crucial role in the Ethiopia economy but countries not using all the potential and opportunities from this sector , so that further understanding about Horticultural crops production and its important for the domestic use and export earnings , should be give attentions on new technology adoption and all stakeholder like farmer ,researcher, investor and government to the sector give emphasis to this sector.
Keywords: Constraints, Horticulture, Opportunity, Production
|Combining Ability of Selected Maize (Zea mays) Inbred Lines Adapted to Highland Agro-Ecologies of Ethiopia
Worknesh Terefe, Adefris Teklewold and Kassahun Tesfaye
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 99-105.
AbstractFull text pdf
Identification of parental inbred lines that can be used for breeding superior hybrids is the most costly and time consuming phase in maize hybrid development. Line × tester mating design provides reliable information on the general and specific combining ability effects of parents and their hybrid combinations. Improvement of maize production and productivity can be realized by identifying elite parent materials which can be used in the formation of high yielding varieties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the combining ability of 24 maize inbred lines for grain yield and other agronomic traits and identify parents in forming superior hybrid combinations for highland areas of the country. Twenty four maize inbred lines were crossed in line x tester mating design during the main season of 2013 at Ambo Agricultural Research Center. Analysis of variance showed that the two gene effects; additive and non-additive were most involved in the control of traits. However, the proportion of GCA sum of squares was higher than that of SCA for all traits. This indicated the higher contribution of additive gene effects to genetic variability of the traits than the non-additive genetic variance in the crosses for all traits except TLB and CLR. Mean squares due to GCA of lines, GCA of testers and SCA of line x tester were significant (P<0.01) for grain yield. Additive and non-additive gene actions are important in governing yield which is confirmed by the presence of highly significant GCA and SCA mean squares. The existance of negative significant (P<0.01) GCA effect for Anthesis date indicated the desirability of lines (L6, L8, L11, L12 and L14) for early maturity. Greater number of lines are best general combiners for grain yield among studied traits which showed significant (P<0.0 or p<0.05) estimates of GCA effect. These inbred lines are desirable parents for hybrid development as well as for inclusion in the breeding programs, as the lines contribute favorable alleles in the synthesis of new varieties. Crosses L1xT1, L3xT1, and L7xT2 revealed positive and significant SCA effects for grain yield indicating these crosses were good specific combinations for grain yield.
Keywords: Combining ability, Crosses, GCA, Gene action, Inbred lines, SCA
|Saponin Content of Agave americana (L.) Leaf Extract and Its Antifungal Attributes against Phytopathogenic Fungi
Asma Mami Maazoun, Amira Mougou Hamdane, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa and Mohamed Nejib Marzouki
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 106-111.
AbstractFull text pdf
Chemical fungicides have been intensively used in the control of phytopathogenic fungi. Nevertheless, this extensive use leads to the development of phytopathogens resistance, contamination of the environment and negative impact on human’s health through residual toxic compounds. Given these problems, secondary metabolites produced by plants are considered as a promising alternative. In fact, plants generate a wide variety of phytochemicals in response to phytopathogenic fungi attack. In this study, we explored saponin content of Agave americana leaf extract and evaluated its antifungal activity against Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum graminicola, and Penicillium digitatum. In addition, its effect on fungal cell membranes and its inhibitory potential on fungal protease activity were investigated. Saponin content of A. americana leaf extract was found to be high. In fact, triterpene saponin content was in the range of 10.32±0.02 mg OAE/g FW and steroidal saponin content was 6.64±0.31 mg DE/g FW. Furthermore, A. americana leaf extract inhibited the mycelial growth of tested phytopathogenic fungi and exhibited a high antifungal effect. Moreover, the results demonstrated that A. americana leaf extract generated fungi toxicity by disrupting P. digitatum cell membranes integrity (OD260 = 0.50 at 120 min) and inhibiting P. digitatum protease activity (IC50 = 108.03±1.16 µg/mL).
Keywords: Agave americana, saponin content, mycelial growth, cell membranes integrity, fungal protease activity inhibition
|Market Structure, Conduct and Volume of Trade among Channels of Watermelon Marketing in Anambra State
Nkamigbo DC, Ugwumba CAO and Okeke Uche
Inter J Agri Biosci, 2019, 8(2): 112-116.
AbstractFull text pdf
The study examined the economics of watermelon marketing in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described the socio-economic characteristics, marketing channels and volume of trade among the channels, market structure and conduct. Multistage sampling procedure which involved purposive and random sampling methods was used to select 240 marketers (120 wholesalers and 120 retailers). Data were collected from primary source. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, table, frequency and Gini-coefficient. The socio-economic characteristics revealed that the marketers were young and in their prime age and have the ability to take risk. From the result, four channels of watermelon distribution were identified while volume of trade that passed through the channels was highest (56%) at channel iv (Producer/Supplier → wholesaler → retailer → consumer) which is the most important (major) channel in the marketing of watermelon. Gini coefficient indices of 0.6556 and 0.6278 for wholesalers and retailers reflected high level of income inequalities, high concentration of sales among few marketers and evidence of moderate level of imperfection in watermelon markets. The findings revealed that majority of the wholesalers (82.7%) and retailers (72.7%) used common pricing techniques of fixing price after considering expenses incurred. Government should reconstruct dilapidated roads, construct new railways, expand water transport facilities, improve and modernize existing market infrastructural facilities to accommodate new entrances into the business.
Keywords: Comparative, Loan, Large and Small scale, Beneficiaries