Volume 9, No. 3, 2020
|Demonstration of Improved Chickpea Varieties in L/Maichew, Central Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Kiros Wolday, Berhe Abrha and Tesfay Araya
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 112-115.
AbstractFull text pdf
Limited access of improved chickpea varieties by the farmers is one of the bottle necks for the low productivity and production of chickpea. Therefore, on farm demonstration of Teketay varietiey and standard check (Dalota) were carried out inin L/maichew (Hatsebo and Hadsh-Adi kebelles) in 2018/2019 in the main cropping season. The current study was aimed to increase cickpea production and productivity through the improved chickpea varieties under the farmers condition with the following specific objectives:i) to demonstrate high yielding chickpea varieties ii) to assess farmers perception towards the new chickpea variety(Teketay). A total of 30 participant farmers were selected from two chickpea growing potential Kebeles of Laelay maichew district to carryout the demonstration activity. One new chickpea variety (Teketay) was compared (demonstrated) with one standard check (Dalota) on plot area of 20m*20m (400 m2) in each farmer’s field.Yield and perception of farmers data were collected and analyzed using SAS and SPSS soft wares in order to evaluate the performance of the varieties. Analysis of variance result showed there was no statistical significance between the two varieties. And farmers showed similar preferences for each verities. Hence, Teketay could be scale up/out in L/maichew and similar agroecologies to have a basket choice of varieties for the end users/farmers.
Keywords: Control, Caryedon serratus,Tamarindus indica
|Pre-extension Popularization of Improved Faba bean (Hachalu) Variety in Central Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Berhe Abraha and Kiros wolday
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 116-119.
AbstractFull text pdf
This pre-extension popularization was carried out in two purposively selected districts of central zone of Tigray, viz., La’elay Maichew and Tahitay Maichew. The aim of the study was i) to popularize improved Faba bean variety (Hachalu) so as to increase production and productivity of the crop with its full packages at farmer’s fields ii) to assess the perception about the acceptance of the technology/ Hachalu variety by the smallholder farmers in the study areas. Two Faba bean potential Districts were selected and from these districts potential peasant association for growing Faba bean were also selected purposely. One peasant association (Debrebirhan) in Laelay Maichew and four peasant association (Kewanit, Hadush-Adi My-Siye and Mirena) were selected in Tahitay Maichew. A total of 88 farmers were purposively selected and awareness created through training about the improved Faba bean varieties and their management practices from the respective districts that are willing and able to participate in adopting improved Faba bean variety (Hachalu). Improved variety i.e., Hachalu was used for pre-extension popularization activity in the areas. Samples of thirty (30) respondents were taken for interviewee for their preference and acceptance of Hachalu variety. A minimum, maximum and mean yield of 1600 kg/ha, 4300 kg/ha and 3060 kg/ha was obtained from Hachalu variety, respectively. Most of (93%) the respondent farmers said the variety is excellent in tillering capacity as well as 71.4% of the farmers perceived best it’s resistant to waterlogging. Similarly, the sampled respondents responded positively for the post-harvest attributes of the improved variety (Hachalu). So that it could be concluded that Hachalu variety was high yielder and highly appreciated/ accepted by the respondent farmers. Therefore, Hachalu variety should be scale up and out to a large number of farmers in the study area and similar agro- ecologies.
Keywords: Central Zone of Tigray; Faba bean; farmers’ perception; pre-extension; Popularization; yield
|Screening of Sesame Genotypes Resistance to Fusarium Wilt Disease (Fusarium oxysporum F. Sp. Sesumi) in Western Tigray, Ethiopia
Assefa Abadi Kebede, Weres Negash Golla and Yirga Belay Kindeya
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 120-124.
AbstractFull text pdf
Sesame is one of the important oil seed crop in Ethiopia, but its production is challenged by several abiotic and biotic factors. Fusarium wilt disease is among the major sesame production constraints and causes huge yield loss from time to time in western Tigray. Simple lattice design with three replication including eighty-one sesame genotypes was used in the study. The objective of the study was to screen sesame genotypes resistance to fusarium wilt disease on May kadra, western Tigray. The study showed that significant (p < 0.001) variation among genotypes about disease incidence and seed yield. Disease incidence was ranged from Gida-Ayana (0.53%) to Baeker BH-01(87.82%), genotypes. The lowest diseases incidence was observed in Gida-Ayana 0.53%, Gonder-1(1.01%), Nigara-MK-01 (1.53%), Tegil (1.73%) and Hirhir (1.84%) respectively. whereas the highest disease incidences recorded from Baeker BH-01(87.82%), Lugdi-0188 (86.4%), Baeker BH-15 (73.28%) and Shellela-035(62.16%). The highest yield was recorded from Hirhir (707.9 kg/ha) while the lowest yield obtained from Baeker BH-01(94.8 kg/ha). Negative correlation and highly significant difference among disease incidence, plant population, and seed yield were observed. Genotypes with low disease incidence will be recommended and promoted for breeding programs to develop fusarium wilt resistance.
Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. sesami, Genotypes, Resistance, Sesame, Yield
|Lizard Meal as Replacement for Fishmeal in Broiler Finisher Birds
Olabode AD, Adetutu OI, Ojuoloruntaye TJ and Eli E
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 125-127.
AbstractFull text pdf
The growth response and economic benefit of replacing fishmeal with lizard meal in finisher broilers formed the basis of this study. A total number of two hundred and twenty-five (225), four weeks old “Anak 2000” broiler birds were used for the research work. The birds were assigned to five treatment groups of forty-five birds each, replicated three times with fifteen birds per replicate. Lizard meal was included to replace fishmeal at levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% corresponding to treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively, with treatment 1 having 100% fishmeal and 0% lizard meal serving as the control. The completely randomized design (CRD) model was adopted. Feed and water were given ad-libitum. Proximate analysis of the lizard meal was carried out. Growth response parameters revealed that there was significant (p<0.05) effect of the test ingredient on the parameters studied. Data obtained showed that birds fed 75% (T4) level of inclusion of lizard meal to replace fishmeal had superior (p<0.05) values of 2987.33g, 1720.33g and 2.17 for final body weight, average body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. While the highest average feed intake was obtained for birds in treatment 2 (4116.29g). Cost-benefit analysis also showed that birds in treatment 4 (75% lizard meal inclusion) was better than the rest of the treatment group under review. Thus, it can be concluded that at the level of 75% replacement of lizard meal for fishmeal, both growth performance and cost benefit analysis were superior to other treatment groups, without any detrimental or negative effect with better gain and benefit.
Keywords: Growth performance, Finisher broiler, Lizard meal, Fishmeal, Cost benefit
|Phenotypic Correlations Between Body Weight and Egg Production Traits of Local Chicken Genotypes in Humid Tropical Rain Forest of Umudike
Isaac UC and Obike MO
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 128-133.
AbstractFull text pdf
Phenotypic correlations were established between body weight and some egg production and egg quality traits of F1 local chicken hens. The hens consisted of 5 homozygous naked neck x naked neck (Na/Na), 6 naked neck x frizzle (Na/F), 7 naked neck x normal (Na/na), 6 homozygous frizzle x frizzle (F/F), 4 frizzle x naked neck (F/Na), 8 frizzle x normal (F/na) and 7 homozygous normal x normal (na/na) genotypes. They laid a total of about 151 eggs between 24 and 32 weeks of age. Correlated traits were body weight at first egg (BWTFE), body weight of laying hens (BWT), age at sexual maturity (ASM), egg number to 56 days (EN56), hen day production (HDP), egg weight (EWT), egg index (EI), egg length (EL), sell thickness (ST), yolk weight (YWT), yolk height (YH), yolk width (YW), yolk index (YI), albumen weight (AWT), albumen height (AH) and Haugh unit (HU). Correlation coefficients of these traits were obtained by Pearson’s Product Moment correlation method. Results indicated that the correlation coefficients between BWTFE and each of ASM, EN56 and HDP ranged from -0.77 in Na/F to 0.75 in na/na, -0.93 in F/na to 0.86 in Na/F and -0.89 in F/Na to 0.71 in Na/F, respectively. Large, positive and highly significant (P<0.01) correlation coefficients were observed between BWT of the laying hens and each of EWT (r =0.80, 0.85 and 0.74) and EW (r= 0.67, 0.75 and 0.62) in Na/F, Na/na and F/F, respectively. Egg length also correlated highly significantly (P<0.05) with BWT of F/na laying hens (r = 0.55). Yolk weight, YW, AH and AWT of most of the genotypes had positive and significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) correlation coefficients with BWT of the laying hens. All egg quality traits correlated positively among themselves in Na/na while only one negative coefficient (r =-0.022) was recorded between EWT and HU in F/Na. In conclusion, genetic improvement of body weight of laying hens will result in corresponding improvement of egg production and egg quality traits of the local chickens, especially those of naked neck and frizzle paternal origin. Indirect selection for any one of the positively correlated egg quality traits could result in genetic improvement in the others.
Keywords: Phenotypic correlation, Body weight, Egg traits, Genotype, Local chicken
|Phenotypic Correlations Between Body Weight and Morphometric Traits in Progeny of Muturu Cattle
Udoh UH and Isaac UC
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 134-140.
AbstractFull text pdf
A research lasting 161 days was carried out with 12 Muturu calves (6 males and 6 females) in the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Uyo, Nigeria. The cattle were managed semi-intensively to determine the phenotypic correlations between their body weights and linear body measurements. Animals were grazed on common grasses and legume forages, supplemented with proprietary feed (16% crude protein and 3500kcal/kg Metabolizable Energy). Data were taken on body weight; ear, tail and face lengths; body neck and head circumferences; hind and fore limbs; rump and chest widths; heart girth, trunk and height at withers. Phenotypic correlations between body weight and linear body parameters at specific ages and without age considerations were ascertained with Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) using Gen Stat Software Computer Programme. Most Morphometric traits in Muturu calves were highly correlated with body weight.The precise correlations, although weak, were obtained with specific age considerations. Stronger correlations were obtained without age considerations, resulting in the masking of the few week or negative correlations observed at specific age groups. Correlations with body weight were very weak within 43-63 days of age and selections for improvement should be avoided at this age. It is recommended that phenotypic correlations in Muturu calves should be estimated with specific age considerations.
Keywords: Correlations, Body weight, Linear parameters, Muturu cattle
|Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulb Yield to Humic Substances in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 141-148.
AbstractFull text pdf
The effectiveness of foliar application of humic substances (22.5 % total humic and fulvic acid with 7.1 % water-soluble potassium oxide) (HFA) was evaluated in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia on onion (Allium cepa L.) at Melkassa, Dugda, and Merti. Different levels of HFA liquid fertilizer in combination with mineral fertilizers were evaluated for two cropping seasons (2015-2017). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The result revealed that the application of recommended rate of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (RNPK) only and foliar application of 1.875 Liter (L) and 2.5 L ha-1 HFA with RNPK (46N, 46P2O5 and 51K2O kg ha-1) and half RNPK significantly improved onion marketable yield at Dugda, and at Melkassa foliar application of 1.875 L of HFA with RNPK fertilizers boosted the onion marketable yield significantly. At Merti the onion marketable yield was improved by the foliar application of humic substances up to 16% though statistically not significant. The partial budget analysis also revealed that the application of RNPK and 2.5L ha-1 of HFA and half RNPK gave a maximum marginal rate of return 1108.6 and 2169.9 % respectively with high net benefits at Dugda. At Melkassa also 1.875 L HFA with RNPK gave the maximum marginal rate of return 676.9 % with the highest net benefit. The foliar application of HFA with/without NPK fertilizers benefits onion production. The use of HFA can be a viable alternative within the small-scale onion producers in the study sites.
Keywords: Foliar application, Humic and fulvic acid, Marginal rate of return, Net benefit, Ethiopia
|Pasture Yield and Mineral Composition of Panicum Maximum Treated with Magnesium Based Fertilizers
Nwankwo CA and Babayemi OJ
Int J Agri Biosci, 2020, 9(3): 149-151.
AbstractFull text pdf
The objectives were to determine the pasture yield and mineral composition of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) treated with magnesium-based fertilizers. An existing monospecific pasture of Panicum maximum var Ntchisi was used. The experimental site measuring 27 x 11m was subdivided into 21 subplots of 3 x 3m and fertilized with six fertilizer combinations as follows (1) Magnesium fertilizer only (mg), (2) Magnesium + Nitrogen (Mg + N) (3) Magnesium + Phosphorus (Mg + P) (4) Magnesium + Potassium (Mg + K) (5) Magnesium + Nitrogen + Phosphorus (Mg + NP) (6) Magnesium + Phosphorus + Potassium (Mg + NPK) (7) No fertilizer (control). Mg, N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the rate of 20, 120, 60 and 60kg/ha, respectively along grass rows and the grasses cut at four weeks interval to determine yield and mineral (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) composition. The treatments were applied to the plots in a completely randomized design. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and treatment means where significant were compared using Duncan’s multiple range test. The study revealed that %CP was higher in grasses treated with Mg + N fertilizer. This implies that uptake of N by grasses increased with N – fertilization. However, the reason for the decline in CP content of grass groups fertilized with Mg + NP cannot be explained.
Keywords: Forage Yield, Mineral composition, Magnesium, Fertilizers