Volume 11, No. 2, 2022

Common Medicinal Plants Effective in Peptic Ulcer Treatment: A Nutritional Review
Anam Mubashir, Ashfa Ghani and Aniqua Mubashar
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 70-74.
Abstract
Abstract

Plants have long been used as drugs for treatment of diseases. With the decrease in the efficacy of synthetic drugs medicinal plants have gained importance. Peptic ulcer is the common gastrointestinal disorder that is associated with increase rate of morbidity and mortality. It is a break or lesion in the lining of the stomach and duodenum characterized by severe pain and bleeding. It is caused by increase in aggressive factors and decrease in defensive factors, genetics, stress, diet, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDS. Its medications such as Histamine, proton pump inhibitor and prostaglandins pose side effects such as arrhythmias, constipation, headache, blurred vision and bleeding. Plants containing flavonoids and terpenes protects the stomach lining and scavenge free radicals. This article reviews the medicinal plants having phytochemicals possessing gastroprotective and antiulcer activity.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, peptic ulcer, diseases.

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Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Different Plants Against Penicillium digitatum Causing Green Mold of Citrus
Nooruddin Bangulzai, Syed Faizan Ahmed, Muhammad Kashif, Mariam Fatima, Manzoor Ahmed and Nimra Mushtaq
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 75-83.
Abstract
Abstract

Citrus (Citrus spp.) is a genus of the Rutaceae family that is thought to have been instigated in Southeast Asia. Citrus is number one in area and production as related to other fruits throughout the world. Punjab is a leading producer of citrus fruits. Post-harvest losses occur due to many postharvest diseases in citrus. Green mold incited by Penicillium digitatum is a primary destructive disease that leads to significant economic losses in citrus production. For this research, infected samples were purchased from the fruit market of Uthal, District Lasbela. Penicillium digitatum was identified and extracted. Healthy fruits were coated with three various essential oils concentrations of six other plant oils like olive (Oleaeuropaea L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.), castor (Ricinus communis), and Sesame oil (Sesamum indicum) were tested after inoculation with Penicillium digitatum on citrus cultivars and then stored in polythene bags for 4, 8 and 12 days respectively. Three replications were used in each treatment. Treatments of citrus fruits coated with at all concentrations of clove oil showed a maximum reduction of disease, i.e., 42-45% with minimum fungus growth proved to be most effective, and Sesame oil at all concentrations showed a minimum decrease of infection, i.e., 19.37% with maximum fungus growth found to be least effective after 4, 8 and 12 days individually. It is a very economical and most effective technique to control this disease.

Keywords: Plant Essential Oils, Penicillium digitatum

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Effectiveness of Calotropis procera (Ait. R. Br.) and Cassia siamea (Lamk.) Leave Powders in the Control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Diabate Dohouonan, Ohoueu Ehouman Jean Brice, Golly Koffi Julien and Tano Yao
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 84-89.
Abstract
Abstract

Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of maize grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Calotropis procera and Cassia siamea leaves powders against Sitophilus zeamais as possible stored maize grain protectants under laboratory conditions (25 ± 3°C, 75 ± 5 % rh). Calotropis procera and Cassia siamea leave powders were tested at three rates of 3.00 g, 5.00 g and 8.00 g, and chemical application Actellic 2% DP® respectively that were mixed with the 50 g maize grains sterilized in translucent plastic containers and the control (untreated). Three pairs of Sitophilus zeamais were put in each translucent plastic containers. Three replicates were performed for each treatment including the control. Calotropis procera and Cassia siamea leaves powders tested at 8.00 g per 50 g of maize grains inflicted highest adult mortality of Sitophilus zeamais and it recorded the lowest seed damage and reduced maize seeds weight losses as a pesticide Actellic. Calotropis procera leaves powders at the rates (8.00 g and 5.00 g) recorded highest reproductive deterrence than the pesticide Actellic 2% DP® and had similar viability index with the pesticide Actellic. The lowest WPI was recorded in Calotropis procera leaves powders at the rate 8.00 g and was 9.722 % followed by the pesticide Actellic 2% DP®. However, Cassia siamea leaves powders (8.00 g) had a similar reproductive deterrence, similar viability index with a pesticide Actellic and had a positive protectant. Calotropis procera and Cassia siamea leaves powders can be used to maize stored protection against a maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

Keywords: Cassia siamea, Calotropis procera, Sitophilus zeamais, Reproductive deterrence, Adult mortality, Weevil Perforation Index.

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Evaluation of Forage and Seed Yield of Avena Sativa Varieties at Debremarkos University Demonstrartion Site
Alemu Gashe Desta
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 90-94.
Abstract
Abstract

The study was conducted Debre Markos University demonstration site to evaluate the forage and grain yield of Avena sativa varieties. To investigate the forage and grain yield of Avena sativa varieties, the investigation was outlaid in RCBAD replicated three times. The five oat varieties CI-1506, CI-2291, CI-2596, CI-2806 and CI-8251 used in this experiment. The leaf length, leaf width, number of spikelet per panicle, panicle length, number of tillers per plant, leaf area, forage dry matter and seed production Avena sativa varieties were significantly influenced by the variety. Varieties CI-2291, CI-2596 and CI-8251 had had significantly higher (p < 0.05) number of tillers per plant and plant height than CI-1506 and CI-2806. The varieties CI-2291, CI-1506 and CI-2806 were significantly lower (p<0.05) than varieties CI-8251 and CI-2596 in leaf length, number of spikelet per panicle and panicle length. The CI-8251, CI-1506 and CI-2806 varieties had significantly lower (p<0.05) leaf width and forage yield than CI-2291 and CI-2596 varieties. The leaf area of the CI-2596 variety was significantly wider (p<0.05) than variety CI-8251, CI-2291, CI-1506, and CI-2806 varieties. The oat varieties CI-2291 and CI-8251 produced significantly higher seed and straw yields, followed by CI-1506, CI-2596 and CI-2806.

Keywords: Avena Sativa, Forage, Seed Yield.

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Assessment of Fiber and Yield Related Traits in Mutant Population of Cotton
Arbaz Hassan, Abdullah Naseer, Aitezaz Ali Asad Shahani, Shahan Aziz, Muhammad Nouman Khalid, Nimra Mushtaq and Muhammad Arslan Munir
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 95-102.
Abstract
Abstract

The research work under consideration was conducted to study the genetic variability of the M1 and M2 generation of the cotton variety named Cyto-155. For M1 generation, seed was previously collected from the Cotton Research Group Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics UAF and bombarded with gamma radiation at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) in 2017-18. The doses given to M1 seed were 20kR, 25kR, 30kR and 35kR. In 2018-19, the seed of M1 generation was sown to raise the M2 population in the research area University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Non-mutated seed along with mutated seed was sown in five lines for each treatment using a randomized complete block design (RCBD). At maturity data related to yield and fiber-related traits were collected. The analysis of variance for yield and fiber-related traits revealed significant differences in all the traits at different doses of gamma radiation in M1 and M2 generation. The basic statistics range, standard deviation and variance related to yield and fiber-related parameters of M1 and M2 generation also indicated the presence of variability. Seed cotton yield showed a positive correlation with plant height and negative correlation with ginning out turn and lint index in M1 generation, while in M2 a positive correlation between ginning out turn and fiber strength was found. For M1 and M2 generation, all four PCs displayed >1 eigen values and had maximum share to total variability. Plant height, sympodial branches and total number of nodes showed minimum differences as they were close to the origin whereas remaining all traits under study displayed maximum differences as they were at a greater distance from origin. For M2 generation, Plant height and uniformity index showed minimum differences as they were close to the origin whereas remaining all traits under study displayed maximum differences as they were at greater distance from origin. These results show that radiation mutagenesis is an effective and feasible method to create variation which can further be exploited in future cotton breeding programs.

Keywords: Mutation breeding, Fiber quality, Multivariate analysis.

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Pollen Characterization of Polyfloral Honeys from Laghouat Region (Algeria)
Salim Zerrouk, Rayan Bahloul and Rachid Chaibi
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 103-107.
Abstract
Abstract

Honey is naturally produced by honeybees from the nectar of plants. It is widely consumed as a health food product all over the world. Melissopalynology plays an important role in ascertaining the botanical and geographical origins of honey by studying the pollen contained in the honey. The pollen content of 19 honey samples of Apis mellifera L. from the Laghouat region of Algeria was analyzed. 100 pollen types belong to 49 families were identified, of which the most diverse were Asteraceae (12 pollen types), Fabaceae (9), Apiaceae, Boraginaceae and Lamiaceae (5 pollen types each). Asteraceae and Fabaceae were present in all the samples, while, Apiaceae Nitrariaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Brassicaceae, and Oleaceae were identified in more than 84% of analysed honey samples. The number of pollen types identified per sample ranged between 13 and 27 (mean of 19.1). All honey samples were classified as a polyfloral honey. The best represented secondary pollen types were Peganum harmala, Centaurea sp., Trifolium sp., Eucalyptus sp., Euphorbia sp., Olea europaea, Echium sp., Onopordum arenarium, Lotus type and Cistus sp. For the quantitative analysis, the pollen content of the studied honey samples ranged from medium (class II, 57.9% of the samples) to high (class III, 42.1 % of the samples), where the pollen density ranged from 23 400 to 351 250 in 10 g of honey, with an average of 108 002 grains /10 g.

Keywords: Melissopalynology, Apis mellifera, Botanical origin, Honey, Laghouat.

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Comparative Analysis and Function of Multiprotein Bridging Factor1 (MBF1) Genes in Cotton
Abdul Hafeez Laghari, Jan Muhammad1 Mari, Muhammad Saleem Chang, Shoaib Ahmed Hakro and Reema Vistro
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 108-124.
Abstract
Abstract

Background: The MBF1 genes are transcription co-activators that trigger the transcription factors activity by bridging TATA-element binding proteins and basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in yeast, human and drosophila. MBF1s activate the gene expression in response to plant development, abiotic stresses including heat, cold, salt, drought and biotic stress, including pathogen attack. It also plays a critical role in physiological and biochemical processes, including hormonal regulation, lipid metabolism and cell differentiation. However, MBF1’s role in cotton is still unknown.
Results: The multiprotein bridging factor1 (MBF1) genes are being characterized for the first time in four cotton genomes. A total of 24 MBF1 genes were identified in four cotton genomes, including 8 genes in G. hirsutum (GhMBF01-GhMBF08), 8 in genes G. barbadense (GbMBF01-GbMBF08), 4 genes in G. arboreum (GaMBF01-GaMBF04) and 4 in G. raimondii (GrMBF01-GrMBF04) respectively. Phylogenetic relationship analysis in 11 plant species suggested the classification of MBF1 genes into two major groups that suggested evolutionary uniqueness in both groups. Comparative analyses of structural features, motif conservation, cis-regulatory elements, genes enrichment and protein-protein interaction network suggested distinctive characteristics, functions and their relation with biologically functional genes. A comparative transcriptome analysis proposed the role of MBF1 genes in plant growth, response to abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, seed germination and cotton fiber development. The qRT-PCR validation of GhMBF02 (GH_A04G0454, Type b), GhMBF04 (GH_A08G2678, Type b), GhMBF07 (GH_D06G0632, Type C), and GhMBF08 (GH_D08G2673, Type b) suggested a positive role of MBF1 in fiber elongation stages of fiber quality specific RIL population lines.
Conclusion: Present study introduced and provided useful information about the potential of MBF1 family genes in response to various growth and developmental stages, biotic and abiotic stresses in cotton that can be referred for further function-based experiments.

Keywords: Multiprotein bridging factor1, Cotton genomes, Conservation, Expression profiling.

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A Review: Pesticide Application in Agriculture and its Environmental Consequences
Usama Safdar, Waqar Ahmed, Manzoor Ahmed, Sikandar Hussain, Mariam Fatima and Naeem Tahir
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 125-130.
Abstract
Abstract

Pesticides are required to generate agricultural products. Farmers have to manage insects, weeds and there is proof that agricultural productivity has greatly increased. Without a rise in food supply, population expansion was impractical in the 20th century. Pesticides are necessary for about one third of agricultural crops. Fruit, vegetable, and cereal production would decrease by seventy-eight, fifty-four and thirty-two percent respectively, without pesticides. Pesticides are crucial for disease prevention and elevating crop productivity on a global scale. Therefore, it is crucial to talk about the development of agriculture, the historical context, the uses and formulations of pesticides, as well as pesticide behavior, contamination, and detrimental effects on the environment. Three main eras can be identified in the history of pesticide use. Pesticides are categorized using a variety of factors, such as chemical classes, functional groups, modes of action, and toxicity. Pesticides use chemicals that may be harmful to other living things to control weeds and eradicate pests. Beneficial insects, non-target plants, fish, birds along with air, water, soil, and crops, are a few examples. Pesticide contamination damages the ecology and extends past the plants it was designed for. The contamination of food and the chemical residues make them detrimental to human health. Climate change-related factors also have an impact on how pesticides are applied, increasing pesticide use and contamination. Therefore, this study will offer the essential scientific information for managing and using pesticides in the future.

Keywords: Review pesticide, Environment, Agriculture.

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Characterization and Advancement of Microsatellite (SSR) Markers for Various Stresses in Wheat
Muhammad Hammad Bashir, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Shakeel Nawaz, Ahmad Zia Khan, Shahan Aziz, Fitrat Ullah and Ifrah Amjad
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(2): 131-138.
Abstract
Abstract

Wheat is a basic diet in most countries so it fulfills 20% of global caloric requirements. But the population of the world is increasing day by day and to achieve the requirements of this growing population. We need almost 60% more wheat and to gain this we need high-yielding varieties which can be obtained by developing the trait management and use of modern biotechnological apparatuses like that SSRs marker and genetic engineering. Molecular markers are short segments of DNA that are used to identify the different traits of interest in species of plants. These can be transformed while developing novel varieties of crops. Wheat is the major staple food of many countries, so it is required in large quantities to fulfill the requirement of the large population of the world. Microsatellite markers are repetitive DNA sequence that occurs in many places within the plant genomes. These consist of more mutations than other parts of DNAs. They are also called simple sequence repeats. These markers are used for DNA profiling; they are used for mapping places within the genome, especially for genetic linkage study Microsatellite markers are assisting the plant breeding. By using these markers, we can develop high-yielding varieties which will be resistant to biotic and abiotic stress.

Keywords: Wheat, SSR marker, Microsatellite Marker, Biotic and Abiotic stress.

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