Volume 11, No. 1, 2022

Response of Plant Densities and Nitrogen Rates on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L Moench) Growth and Nutrient use Efficiency in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Bahiru Tilahun and Prof Walelign Worku
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(1): 1-10.
Abstract
Abstract

Plant density (PD) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer are considered the most important crop management practices in improving sorghum grain yield. In line with this a field experiments was conducted at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) and Mieso research sites in the central Rift Valley (CRV) areas of Ethiopia during the main rainy season of 2016 to study the effects of PD and N fertilizer rates on growth and nutrient use efficiency and uptake. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement with three replications. Two Sorghum Varieties, a hybrid (ESH-1) and an open pollinated variety (Teshale) were used with three plant densities (66,666, 88,888 and 133,333 plantsha-1) and four N rates (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg ha-1). Growth parameters (LAI, crop growth rate and net assimilation rate) were significantly affected by all main factors and their interaction effects. Nutrient concentration and uptake were variable across main effects; it increased with nitrogen rate while decreased with plant density and was higher for Mieso than MARC as well as for ESH-1 than Teshale.

Keywords: Location, N-rates, N-uptake, Plant densities and Sorghum Varieties.

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Effect of Plant Densities and Nitrogen Rates on Yield and Yield Components of Sorghum Varieties (Sorghum bicolor. L Moench) in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Bahiru Tilahun and Getachew Jimayu
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(1): 11-21.
Abstract
Abstract

Plant density (PD) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer are considered the most important crop management practices in improving sorghum grain yield. In line with this a field experiments was conducted at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) and Mieso research sites in the central Rift Valley (CRV) areas of Ethiopia during the main rainy season of 2016 to study the effects of PD and N fertilizer rates on growth, yield and yield components of sorghum. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement with three replications. Two Sorghum Varieties, a hybrid (ESH-1) and an open pollinated variety (Teshale) were used with three plant densities (66,666, 88,888 and 133,333 plantsha-1) and four N rates (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg ha-1). Biomass, head weight and grain yield (t/ha) were significantly affected by main factor effects. Moreover, interaction effect of location by variety affected almost all yield related parameters except thousand seed weight. Interaction between variety and density significantly affected biomass, head weight and grain yield with the highest results for ESH-1 at the highest density. Better grain yield, with a profitable marginal rate of return was achieved for the hybrid ESH-1 variety with application of 23 Kg N ha-1 and the highest plant density (133,333) at MARC while it was obtained with application of 69 Kg N ha-1 at the lowest density (66,667) for the same variety at Mieso.

Keywords: Location, N-rates, N-uptake, Plant densities and Sorghum Varieties

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Soil Microbes as Bioherbicides: An Eco-friendly Approach to Control Striga
Urgesa Tsega Tulu
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(1): 22-28.
Abstract
Abstract

Striga, also called witch weed, is a notorious obligate root hemiparasitic weed of global food security crops such as sorghum, maize, millet and upland rice causing considerable yield loss in Sub Saharan Africa. Several Striga control measures have been developed which include cultural, chemical and resistance breeding. However, many of these methods are either not practically successful or are not economically feasible for low-income farmers. Furthermore, the negative effects of agrichemicals on the environment have attracted scientist to look for an alternative weed management strategy. The use of microorganisms naturally occurring in the soil as biological control agents offer an alternative approach to control the parasitic weeds. Soil is the natural home of numerous forms of beneficial microorganism playing vital role in maintaining the dynamic equilibrium. In recent time, soil born microbes, primarily bacteria and fungi, become the most effective Striga management strategy that targets Striga seed bank in the soil. Hence, this review presents a comprehensive and new approach on the roles of soil microbes in fight against Striga.

Keywords: Biological control, Hemiparasite, Seed bank, Soil born microbes.

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Effects of Plant Spacing and Harvesting Age on Growth and Yield of Sage (Salvia officinalis L
Getachew Jimayu and Aynalem Gebre
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(1): 29-33.
Abstract
Abstract

The experiment was conducted at Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center, Southern Ethiopia from 2015 to 2017 cropping seasons to determine the optimum harvesting age and plant spacing of sage to maximize essential oil yield. The experimental design was RCBD in factorial arrangement with three replications. The treatments were four harvesting ages (3, 4, 5 and 6) months after planting and three plant spacing (30 cm × 30 cm, 60 × 60 cm and 90 × 90 cm). The study showed that spacing had a highly significant (p≤0.001) influence on fresh leaf weight per plant, dry leaf weight per plant and essential oil yield per hectare; highly significantly (p≤0.01) influenced plant height and dry herbage yield per hectare, significantly (p≤0.05) influenced fresh herbage yield and non-significantly influenced essential oil content. On the other hand, harvesting age highly significantly (p≤0.001) influenced plant height, fresh leaf weight per plant, dry herbage yield per hectare, essential oil content and essential oil yield; and also, significantly (p≤0.05) influenced dry leaf weight per plant. The highest essential oil yield (98.16 and 106.73 kg/ha) were obtained from 30 × 30 cm spacing and five months after planting respectively.

Keywords: Essential oil, Leaf yield, Herbage yield.

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Essential Oil Yield and Yield Related of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L) as Affected by NPS and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates at Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia
Getachew Jimayu
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(1): 34-41.
Abstract
Abstract

The experiment was conducted on experimental field of Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center (WGARC), southern Ethiopia under supplementary irrigation in 2017- 2018 cropping season, to assess the effects of NPS and N fertilizer rates on essential oil yield and yield related traits of basil. The experiment consisted of four rates of nitrogen (0, 23, 46, and 69 kg ha-1) and four rates of NPS fertilizer (0, 50,100 and 150 kg ha-1). The treatments were arranged in factorial combination using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The analysis of variance revealed that the main effects of NPS and N fertilizer rates significantly affected plant height, number of leaves plant-1 and dry stem weight plant-1. The tallest plant height (32.87 cm) and highest dry stem weight (41.86 g plant-1) were recorded from 100 kg ha-1 NPS rate. Similarly, the tallest plant (31.90 cm) and highest dry stem weight (42.78 g plant-1) were recorded from the highest (69 kg N ha-1) rate. On other hand, the interaction effects of NPS and N fertilizer rates also significantly affected number of primary branches plant-1, fresh leaf weight plant-1, fresh stem weight plant-1, fresh inflorescence weight plant-1, aboveground dry biomass and essential oil yield of basil. Significantly, the highest fresh leaf weight (319.36 g plant-1) and fresh stem weight (176.30 g plant-1) were obtained from combined application of 150 kg ha-1 NPS + 69 kg ha-1 N rates. The highest number of primary branches plant-1(12.63), dry leaf weight (43.93 g plant-1) and aboveground dry biomass (4.64-ton ha-1) were obtained from combined application of 100 kg ha-1 NPS + 69 kg ha-1 N, whereas the highest essential oil yield (30.22 kg ha-1) was due to combination of 100 kg ha-1 NPS + 46 kg ha-1 N rate and it is statistically at par with 50 kg ha-1 NPS + 46 kg ha-1 N. Therefore, combined application of 50 kg ha-1 NPS + 46 kg ha-1 N would be suggested in case of basil used for extracting essential oil.

Keywords: Essential oil, Interaction effect, Main effect.

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Egg Biopsy and Spawning Performance of Catfish (Burchell, 1822) using Ovaprim and Chicken Pituitary Hormone
Olusola Adeniyi Babalola
Int J Agri Biosci, 2022, 11(1): 42-47.
Abstract
Abstract

Study on egg biopsy and spawning performance of cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) induced with Ovaprim and Chicken Pituitary Hormone (CPH) was carried out to determine the effect of Ovaprim and CPH on fish egg (Oocyte) migration and the resultant effect on fertilization and hatchability percentages. Sixteen C. gariepinus brood stocks (sex ratio 2:1) between 1.1kg and 2.3kg in weight and four layers birds (Gallus gallus domesticus) between 1.2kg and 2.2kg in weight were used for the experiment. Extraction of CPH from layers birds was carried out to induce brood stock fishes. Treatment 1 was used for Ovaprim and replicated thrice whilst Treatment 2 was used for CPH and also replicated thrice. An indoor slow flow- through system vat measuring 2 ft x 6 ft x 1 ft each was used for the incubation. Water test kits and Table top scale were used to monitor essential physicochemical parameters and measurement of the fish brood stock and Chicken layers weights individually. The mean values of egg biopsy, fertilization and hatchability percentages in Ovaprim and CPH treatments was not significantly different at 5% level of probability. Also, there was no significant difference at 5% level of probability in the physiochemical parameters. This study showed that both Ovaprim and CPH induced egg ripening and migration of egg nucleus to the micropyle for effective fertilization and spawning in African catfish therefore, CPH could be recommended on the basis of spawning effectiveness and availability of the pituitary from the chicken slaughter/processing house with little or no cost.

Keywords: Biopsy, Breeding, Ovaprim, Chicken Pituitary,

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