In Press Articles

Ensilage Characteristics of Corn Silage Treated with Fermented Green Juice Prepared from Corn, Alfalfa or Timothy
Lamiaa Selim, Kazuo Ataku and Mohamed Tharwat
Abstract
Abstract

Fermented green juice (FGJ) has established its efficiency as a silage additive; its addition to alfalfa and timothy resulted in good fermentation-quality silage. Therefore, the fermentation quality of corn silage treated with FGJ was evaluated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Whole plant corn at the dough stage was harvested and treated with FGJ prepared from corn, alfalfa, or timothy. Comparing the fermentation characteristics of the three FGJs, the epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominantly grew in all FGJs, and its level reached 107 cfu/g in timothy and corn FGJs. While alfalfa FGJ contained the highest number of LAB 5.8×108 cfu/g. The highest lactic acid content was found in alfalfa FGJ, which subsequently resulted in the highest total acid content. However, alfalfa FGJ recorded the highest pH value, and this may be ascribed to the high buffering capacity of alfalfa. Aerobic bacteria and mold levels were decreased after 2 days of fermentation in all FGJs. On the contrary, yeast tended to increase in corn and alfalfa FGJs while it decreased only in timothy FGJ. Both control and FGJ-treated silages were well-preserved silages. The pH value and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) content did not increase more than 3.79 and 4.9% TN, respectively. Corn FGJ-treated silage has a lower pH value, lower NH3-N/TN, and higher Flieg’s point and V-score than the control silage. Both molds and enterobacterial growth were depressed in all silages. Corn and alfalfa FGJs treated silages had lower aerobic bacterial count than the control. While the lowest level of yeast was detected in timothy FGJ-treated silage. In conclusion, data obtained in this trial suggested that adding FCJ to properly ensiled corn may be of questionable value.

Keywords: Corn silage, Fermentation, Fermented green juice, Nutrition, Timothy silage

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Supplementation of Microencapsulated Fish-Derived Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria to Enhance Antioxidant Activity in Animal Feed
Srisan Phupaboon, Farah J Hashim, Sukrita Punyauppa-Path, Burarat Phesatcha, Nattawadee Kanpipit, Papatchaya Kongtongdee, Parichat Phumkhachorn and Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon
Abstract
Abstract

The present global trend is finding potent probiotics in addition to animal feed. This study aimed to investigate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Thai silver BARB fish (Barbonymus gonionotus) as potential probiotics for use in animal feed. Isolated strains were screened based on their resistance to lysozyme, and 10 selected strains showed higher activity than others. Those strains were identified using biochemical characteristics and the sequencing of 16S rDNA. Identification revealed that those isolates are belong to: Lactocaseibacillus rhamnosus, Lactoplantibacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The 10 isolates were subjected to the probiotic tests, including (antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility, acid and bile salt tolerance, and hydrophobicity) to determine which isolate had the most potent probiotic effect. As a result, L. rhamnosus KKU-D89 isolate exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli, high tolerance against acid and bile salt conditions, and an interesting hydrophobicity percentage. L. rhamnosus KKU-D89, as a probiotic potent was selected for encapsulation by glutinous rice flour mixed with inulin (GRF-inulin) using the freeze-drying technique. Microcapsules used to prepare probiotic feed pellets are named (microencapsulated-pro KKU-D89 pellets). Another feed pellets prepared from an uncoated isolate named are (uncoated-pro KKU-D89 pellets). Especially, microencapsulated-pro KKU-D89 pellets showed excellent encapsulation efficiency (100%), high stability efficiency (96.9%), and cell viability ranging from log 11.7-12.8 CFU/g compared with uncoated pellets. Additionally, microencapsulated-pro KKU-D89 pellets revealed releasing high viable cells (log 10.7 CFU/mL) in gastric juice pH 2.0 and (log 12.3 CFU/mL) in intestinal juice pH 7.2. This microcapsule pellets showed interesting free radicals scavenging activity against both DPPH and ABTS inhibition assays with 54.3 and 43.2%, respectively. In conclusion, the microencapsulated-pro L. rhamnosus KKU-D89 pellets using GRF-inulin have the potential to develop as a novel feed formulation by enabling viable probiotic bacteria to reach the large intestine through feeding.

Keywords: GRF-inulin capsules, Probiotic additive, Animal feeding, In vitro release, In vitro antioxidant

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A Summary Review of Biogenic Amines in Southeast Asia Fermented Food, the Factors and the Reduction Methods
Bhakti Etza Setiani, Yunianta, Elok Zubaidah and Agustin Krisna Wardani
Abstract
Abstract

Southeast Asia boasts a rich variety of food, mainly featuring fishery and fermented products. This region is home to a wide range of indigenous foods, each unique to its own country. Most of these culinary offerings consist of meat and seafood. Various food items subjected to testing were found to contain a spectrum of biogenic amine compounds such as tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, spermine, spermidine, and tyramine, with histamine being the most frequently analyzed. Most food samples tested complied with the maximum biogenic amine content standards. Biogenic amines (BA) are organic compounds with one or more amine functional groups (-NH2) formed during microbial fermentation. Consuming foods high in BA is linked to adverse health effects like migraines, high blood pressure, and tachycardia. BA toxicity can occur at levels much lower than the regulatory and suggested toxic doses, influenced by an individual’s sensitivity, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. Although BA are found in many fermented foods, food safety and public health professionals often lack awareness of the potential health risks and control strategies. This review examines the presence of BA in Southeast Asian foods, identifies contributing factors and formation mechanisms, and explores potential strategies for reducing their levels.

Keywords: Biogenic amine, Food safety, Indigenous food, Southeast Asia

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The Potential of Araneae as Biological Control Agents against Honey-wax Pests (Pyralidae)
Noushig H Zarikian, Marine V Vardanyan, Martin Ya Rukhkyan, Ruzan L Hovhannisyan, Roza E Barseghyan, Zaruhi M Dudukchyan, Karine V Akopyan and Laura J Harutyunova
Abstract
Abstract

A diverse array of spider species inhabits agroecosystems and wild mountainsides, where beekeeping boxes are temporarily installed for natural feeding. Over the past decade, the wax moths Achroia grisella and Galleria mellonella have become widespread pests in bee colonies within Armenian agrosystems and have also caused damage to stored honeybee combs. Spiders, as predators, employ various strategies to eliminate pests in nature and beekeeping boxes, acting as effective biological control agents. This study aimed to evaluate the functional responses of several Aranea species to these pests, providing viable options for biological control technologies without pesticide use. In this research, eleven spider species were tested, and different functional responses were observed against wax moth larvae and adults. The findings highlighted that Steatoda paykulliana was the most significant natural enemy and Thanatus pictus was the least effective predator. In addition, intraspecific interference among the eleven spider species demonstrated that increased spider density led to a decreased predation ratio. The results further signified a positive correlation between predator density and the intensity of scrambling competition.

Keywords: Araneae, Biocontrol, Functional response, Pyralidae.

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Digital Photographs of Vascular Plants’ Organs using Smartphones: A Methodological Approach to Teaching in Plant Biology
Piba Serge Cherry, Monyn Ebalah Delphine Epse Kouame, Koffi Kouamé Christophe, TA Bi Irié Honoré, Kouame Amoin Gervaise and TRA Bi Fezan Honora
Abstract
Abstract

Modern and digital technology is becoming increasingly important to facilitate teaching in our universities and colleges. The smartphone represents a considerable advantage for photography and image transfer. Given its accessibility and the relative scarcity of teaching aids in developing countries, it could be a valuable tool for practical plant biology work. This study aims to present a methodology for producing digital photographs of anatomical sections obtained during practical work in the histology of vascular plants. It was carried out between March 2019 and November 2023. The approach consisted of pairing a smartphone with an optical microscope to photograph anatomical sections. It enabled the creation of 246 images of stems, roots, and leaves. The results showed that smartphone sensors can take detailed images on optical microscopes not connected to the computer. These images make it easier to describe the primary and secondary histological structures of plant organs with learners. Tissues present in the cortex, and central cylinder of stems and roots, both young and old, and in the leaf blade and central vein of monocotyledons and dicotyledons are better observed and commented on. While facilitating collaboration and discussion, this methodology helps illustrate and understand the lessons learned quickly. It should be disseminated to other universities in Côte d’Ivoire and other developing countries to compensate for the lack of teaching materials.

Keywords: Smartphone, Photography, Practical work, Cytology, Histology, Anatomy.

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Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization and Rhizobium Inoculation on the Growth, Production, and Forage Quality of Peanuts (Arachis Hypogaea L.)
Nirmala Munir, Budiman and Rinduwati
Abstract
Abstract

This study used a factorial Complete Randomized Design (RAL) consisting of factor A (phosphorus level) and factor B (addition of Rhizobium inoculation). The research treatment was as follows: Factor A=phosphorus level, P0: control phosphorus level or 0kg, P1: phosphorus level 0.25g SP36/polybag, P2: phosphorus level 1g SP36/polybag. While factor B=addition of Rhizobium inoculation, I0: without addition of Rhizobium, I1: addition of Rhizobium 2.5 gr/polybag. The parameters observed were plant height growth, fresh matter and dry production, number and weight of pods, number and weight of pods and seeds, quality of crude protein content and crude fiber content. The results of this study showed that the application of phosphorus and Rhizobium fertilizers had no real effect (P>0.05) on plant height, and no real effect on dry matter production, number, and weight of pods, and not the nutritional quality of crude fiber and crude protein, but a real effect (P<0.05) on the root nodules, fresh matter and the number and weight of seeds. There is an interaction between the application of phosphorus fertilizer and the addition of Rhizobium bacteria on the parameters of the root nodules, pod weight, number of seeds, crude protein content and crude fiber. The best treatment combination among several treatments is the combination of P2I1 with a fertilization dose of 1g/polybag with the addition of 2.5g Rhizobium inoculation.

Keywords: Peanuts; Phosphorus; Rhizobium; Root nodules.

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